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Biology Mock 2019

UNIT ONE

QuestionAnswer
What is the equation for Photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 12H2O with light energy ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2 +6H2O
Where does the light dependent reaction take place? The Thylakoid (in the chloroplast)
Describe the light dependent reaction. Absorbs light energy/ Electrons become energised. Energy used to split water into O2 (biproduct) and H+ ions. ATP formed.
Where does the light independent reaction take place? The Stroma (in the chloroplast)
Describe the light independent reaction. Uses CO2, H+ ions and ATP to convert carbon dioxide gas into glucose.
What is the equation for Cellular Respiration? C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36-38 ATP
Describe the process of aerobic Cellular respiration ie. glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Glycolysis (cytoplasm): glucose --> 2 pyruvate molecules & 2 ATP. 2 pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondrion & undergoes Krebs Cycle - produces CO2 (bi-product) & 2ATP. Finally, the electron transfer chain - large amount of energy is released.
Describe Anaerobic cellular respiration. Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Glucose ---> lactic acid + 2ATP Glucose ---> ethanol + 2ATP +2CO2
What are the three types of stem cells? Totipotent = total potential incl. embryonic material. Pluripotent = total potential except embryonic material. Multipotent = anything within a category eg. any type of blood cell.
What are the 4 requirements of gaseous exchange? 1. Moist 2. Thin and Permeable. 3. Large SA-Volume ratio 4. Have a concentration gradient
Describe Gas exchange in mammals. Air enters through nasal/oral cavities. Passes through epiglottis, trachea & larynx (warmed and moistened). Through bronchi and bronchioles until alveoli. Oxygen out of alveoli, into capillaries. Around body. CO2 diffuses out of capillaries into alveoli.
Describe the process of gas exchange in fish. Operculum opens: water enters mouth and passes over gills. Oxygen diffuses from the water into the filaments and then capillaries, CO2 diffuses out. *This can occur due to the counter-current exchange: deoxygenated blood opposite direction to water.
Capillaries are: (think features/characteristics) 1 endothelial-cell thick. Have a small diameter.
Describe the pathway of Absorption of Nutrients. (think small intestine etc.) 1. Mechanical digestion 2. chemical digestion 3. travels through oesophagus 4. Small intestine: glucose and amino acids are absorbed by villi --capillary network and circulatory system. Fatty acids and glycerol absorbed by lacteals --> lymphatic system
What are the products of each of these enzymes? Amylase, Lipase and Protease. Amylase: Carbohydrates to simple sugars. Lipase: lipids to fatty acids & glycerol. Protease: proteins to amino acids.
What is the first step in the digestive system? (mouth) Mechanical and chemical digestion: mastication (chewing) and salivary amylase.
What is the second step in the digestive system? (travel) Bolus passes through epiglottis and down the oesophagus via peristaltis.
What is the third step in the digestive system? (stomach) HCl and pepsin break down. churns for 2 - 6hrs and forms chyme. exits through the pyloric sphincter.
What is the fourth step in the digestive system? (small intestine) Amylase and protease are secreted into the small intestine from the pancrea. Bile is secreted from the liver. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are broken down.
What is the fifth step in the digestive system? (Large intestine) Reabsorption: - sends all water to kidneys minerals like K+ and Na+ Waste exits via the rectum and anus defecation.
What is deamination? The separation/removal of nitrogen-containing amine groups from the rest of the amino acids in liver cells.
What is ammonia converted to? Ammonia --> urea -->urine/uric acid
What is the function of the glomerulus? Filtration: pressure of blood forces approximately 1/5 of its plasma, as well as glucose, urea, amino acids and mineral ions out through the capillary walls.
What is the function of the Bowman's capsule? Filtration: Plasma with dissolved materials diffuse across wall into capsule and then the proximal tubule.
What is the function of the proximal tubule? Reabsorption: water is reabsorbed + 10% of glucose and amino acids, + 65% of mineral ions. Most urea stays inside tubule.
What is the function of the descending loop of Henle? Reabsorption: water flows out of tubule and into the interstitial fluid and capillaries via osmosis. The urea and other solutes become more concentrated in the urine the further in travels down the loop of Henle.
What is the function of the ascending loop of Henle? Reabsorption: mineral ions move out of the thick-walled section and into the thin-walled section, then into the interstitial fluid. Water remains inside the tubule. At the end of the loop, waste concentration in urine is lower.
What is the function of the distal tubule? Reabsorption: Some useful mineral ions + water are reabsorbed. Permeability changes depending on the body's need for water.
What is the function of the collecting ducts? Reabsorption: Na+ ions & more water (if required) move from collecting ducts to interstitial fluid to cap. Urea may also be absorbed into int. fluid. Secretion: additional wastes, as necessary, are transferred from the cap. network & int. fluid to ducts.
Name and describe the 2 types of mesophyll. Palisade mesophyll: regularly shaped, densely packed with chloroplasts and separated by narrow air spaces. Spongy Mesophyll: irregularly shaped, fewer chloroplasts, interconnected air spaces.
Describe the Xylem. Transports water and nutrients. Composed of tracheids and vessel elements. Consists of dead cells.
Describe the Phloem. Transports sugars and other plant products. Composed of sieve tube cells and companions cells. Consists of living cells. *companion cells control sieve tubes via plasmodesmata.
Describe the travel of water within a plant. Water and dissolved minerals enter roots via diffusion. Moves into the xylem. Force of water pushing into cells --> root pressure --> pushes water up a few metres. Cohesion and adhesion pull water up the rest of the way. Transpiration stream at the end.
What is cohesion and adhesion? Cohesion is the force of attraction between the water molecules. Adhesion is the force of attraction between the water molecules and side of the tube.
Created by: Caitlyn_01