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Chapter 1 Vocabulary from The White Book (International)

applied behavior analysis (ABA) the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement of behavior
behaviorism the philosophy of a science of behavior; there are various forms of behaviorism (methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism, etc)
determinism the assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomenon occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion
empricism the objective observation of the phenomena of interest
experiment a carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (the dependent variable) under two of more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from one condition to another
experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) a natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right
explanatory fiction a fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon
functional relation a verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more controlled variables in the experiment b = f(x)
hypothetical construct a presumed but unobserved process or entity
mentalism an approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental or inner dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or mediate some forms of behavior, if not all
methodological behaviorism a philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed (as) outside the realm of science
parsimony the practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations
philosophic doubt an attitude that truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned
radical behaviorism a thoroughgoing form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person (ontogeny) and the species (phylogeny)
replication repeating conditions within an experiment to determine reliability of effects and increase internal validity; repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors
science a systematic approach to the understanding of the natural phenomena that relies on determinism, empiricism, replication, parsimony, and philosophic doubt
primary rule of science empiricism
fundamental assumption of science determinism
requirement for believability of science replication
a value of science parsimony
the guiding conscience of science philosophic doubt
Created by: arcuate



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