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Ch 13 - Blood System

Language of Medicine

QuestionAnswer
ACUTE LYMPHOID LEUKEMIA [ALL] Malignant, immature lymphocytes called lymphoblasts multiply in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system – This form is seen most often in children and adolescents; TREATMENT: for acute leukemia → Transplantation of normal bone marrow from donors of s
ACUTE MYELOID [myelocytic] LEUKEMIA [AML] Malignant, immature granulocytes called myeloblasts multiply in the bone marrow and bloodstream
ALBUMIN Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood.
ANEMIA Deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin; EXAMPLE: 1) Iron deficiency anemia: most common type 2) APLASTIC ANEMIA 3) HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA 4) PERNICIOUS ANEMIA 5) SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and 6) THALASSEMIA
ANISOCYTOSIS Inequality in the size of red blood cells – (anis/o) size; -cytosis means an increase in the number of cells.
ANTIBODY [Ab] Protein [immunoglobulin] made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances [antigens] in the blood – An antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.
ANTICOAGULANT Substance that prevents blood clotting
ANTIGEN Substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody.
ANTIGLOBULIN TEST Test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes; Also known as Coombs test. This test determines the presence of antibodies in infants of Rh-negative women or in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
APHERESIS Withdrawal and separation of blood elements into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood. This procedure can remove toxic substances or autoantibodies from the blood and can collect blood cells. EXAMPLE: Leukapheresis, plateletphere
APLASTIC ANEMIA Failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of formation) of bone marrow cells. ETIOLOGY: unknown (idiopathic), but some have been linked to benzene exposure and rarely to antibiotics such as chloramphenicol. Pancytopenia occurs when stem cel
BASOPHIL White blood cell (leukocyte) containing granules that stain with a basic dye; associated with release of histamine and heparin – The suffix -phil means attraction to. Granules in basophils are attracted to a basic dye.
BILIRUBIN Orange-yellow pigment found in bile; it is released from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
BLEEDING TIME Time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound. Normal time is 8 minutes or less. Either the Simplate or the Ivy method is used. Platelet disorders and the use of aspirin prolong bleeding time.
BLOOD TRANSFUSION Blood cells or whole blood from a closely matched donor are infused into a patient. Appropriate testing to ensure a match of red blood cell type (A, B, AB, or O) is essential. Tests also are performed to detect the presence of hepatitis and the acquired i
BONE MARROW BIOPSY Needle aspiration of a small amount of bone marrow followed by examination under a microscope; EXAMPLE: bone marrow aspiration – DIAGNOSISES: blood disorders such as anemia, pancytopenias, and leukemia.
CHRONIC LYMPHOID [lymphocytic] LEUKEMIA [CLL] Malignant, but relatively mature lymphocytes, multiply in bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen; most common form of leukemia – usually occurs in the elderly and progresses slowly. TREATMENT: does not require immediate treatment
CHRONIC MYELOID [myelocytic] LEUKEMIA [CML] Malignant, but relatively mature granulocytic leukocytes multiply in the bloodstream; progresses slowly → patients (often adults older than 55) may live for many years without encountering life-threatening problems. TREATMENT: New therapies (such as the d
COAGULATION Process of blood clotting
COAGULATION TIME Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube. Normal time is less than 15 minutes.
COAGULOPATHY Disease of blood clotting
COLONY-STIMUALTING FACTOR [CSF] Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes)
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT [CBC] Determination of the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell indices (MCH, MCV, MCHC) in a sample of blood
CYTOLOGY Study of cells
DIFFERENTIATION Change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; Also known as specialization.
DYSCRASIA Any abnormal or pathology condition of the blood
ELECTROPHORESIS Technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge.
EOSINOPHIL White blood cell whose granules stain intensely with an acidic eosin (reddish) dye; associated with allergic reactions.
EOSINOPHILIA Increase in numbers of eosinophils in the bloodstream
ERYTHROBLAST Immature, developing red blood cell – -blast means immature.
ERYTHROCYTE Red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter (µL) or cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood.
ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE [ESR or sed rate] Measurement of the speed at which erythrocytes settle or fall to the bottom of a test tube. DIAGNOSISES: rate ↑ = infections, joint inflammation, and tumor, which increase the fibrinogen content of the blood.
ERYTHROPOIESIS Formation of red blood cells – Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys to stimulate erythrocyte formation.
ERYTHROPOIETIN [EPO] Substance [hormone] produced [secreted] by the kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erythrocytes
FIBRIN Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
FIBRINOGEN Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
GLOBULIN Major blood protein; EXAMPLE: alpha, beta, and gamma immunoglobulin
GRANULOCYTE White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; EXAMPLE: neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil
GRANULOCYTOPENIA Deficiency of granulocytes
GRANULOCYTOSIS abnormal increase in numbers of granulocytes in the blood; EXAMPLE: 1) if there is an increase in neutrophils that indicates an infection or inflammation of any type 2) if there is an increase in eosinophil [Eosinophilia] that indicates an allergic condi
HEMATOCRIT [Hct] Percentage of red blood cells [erythrocytes] in a given volume of blood
HEMATOPOIESIS Formation of blood cells
HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL Cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to different types of blood cells.
HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT Peripheral (found in the blood) stem cells from a compatible donor are administered into the vein of a recipient. TREATMENT FOR: Patients with malignancies, such as AML, ALL, CLL, CML, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. METHOD: First the donor is treated with
HEMOCHROMATOSIS Excessive deposits of iron throughout the body; ETIOLOGY: may be hereditary. SYMPTOM: skin pigmentation, joint pain, and fatigue. COMPLICATION: cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiac failure may occur
HEMOGLOBIN Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
HEMOGLOBIN TEST [H, Hg, Hgb, HGB] Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of blood
HEMOGLOBINOPATHY Disease or defect of hemoglobin production; EXAMPLE: sickle cell anemia
HEMOLYSIS Destruction or breakdown of blood; specifically red blood cells
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Reduction in erythrocytes due to excessive destruction of red blood cells; EXAMPLE: congenital spherocytic anemia (hereditary spherocytosis) = Instead of their normal biconcave shape, erythrocytes become spheroidal. This rounded shape makes them fragile a
HEMOPHILIA Hereditary disease of blood clotting failure with abnormal bleeding; affected individuals are lacking a blood clotting factor (factor VIII or factor IX). Platelet count is normal, deficiency in clotting factors = a prolonged coagulation time. COMPLICATIO
HEMOSTASIS Stoppage of bleeding or circulation of blood
HEPARIN Anticoagulant found in blood and tissues.
HYPOCHROMIC Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells – Hypochromic anemia is marked by a decreased concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
IMMUNE REACTION Response of the immune system to foreign invasion
IMMUNOGLOBULIN Antibody-containing protein in the blood; EXAMPLE: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD. Immun/o means protection.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA most common type; ETIOLOGY: lack of iron, which is required for hemoglobin production
LEUKAPHERESIS Mechanical separation of white blood cells from the rest of the blood
LEUKEMIA Increase in cancerous white blood cells [leukocytes]; there are four types of leukemia. Two types are acute and these have some common clinical characteristics: abrupt onset of signs and symptoms—fatigue, fever, bleeding, bone pain, lymphadenopathy, splen
LEUKOCYTE White blood cell.
LEUKOPENIA Deficiency of white blood cells
LYMPHOCYTE Leukocyte (White blood cell) with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing antibodies
MACROCYTOSIS Presence of large [larger than normal] red blood cells in the blood
MACROPHAGE Large phagocytic cell migrating from the blood into tissues – As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris. In the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, macrophages destroy worn out red blood cells.
MEGAKARYOCYTE Large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platelet precursor found in the bone marrow.
MICROCYTOSIS Increased numbers of smaller than normal red blood cells. Table 13-3 reviews terms related to abnormalities of red blood cell morphology.
MONOBLAST Immature monocyte; gives rise to granulocytes.
MONOCYTE White blood cell (agranulocyte) with one large nucleus; become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues. It is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris.
MONONUCLEAR Pertaining to a white blood cell (leukocyte) with a single, round nucleus; EXAMPLE: monocyte or lymphocyte.
MONONUCLEOSIS Infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes; transmitted by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Atypical lymphocytes are present in the blood, liver, and spleen; affects primarily young adults. SYMPTOM: Lymphad
MORPHOLOGY Study of the shape and form of cells, particularly red blood cells
MULTIPLE MYELOMA Malignant tumor of bone marrow; overproduction of immunoglobulins that cause destruction of bone tissue; COMPLICATION: osteolytic lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, renal damage, and increased susceptibility to infection. TREATMENT: analgesics, radiotherapy
MYELOBLAST Immature granulocytic white blood cell; a cell normally only found in the bone marrow – The suffix -blast indicates an immature or embryonic cell.
MYELODYSPLASIA Pre-leukemic condition.
MYELOID Derived from bone marrow
MYELOPOIESIS Formation and development of bone marrow or cells that originate from it
NEUTROPENIA Deficiency of neutrophils
NEUTROPHIL White blood cell (leukocyte ) with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye; phagocyte formed in the bone marrow and the body's first line of defense against disease. Also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
NEUTROPHILIA Increased numbers of neutrophils
PANCYTOPENIA Deficiency of all (blood) cells
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA Lack of mature erythrocytes; Pernicious means ruinous or hurtful. ETIOLOGY: inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body which can be caused by a lack of intrinsic factor (ĭn-TRĬN-sĭk FĂK-tŏr) [necessary for vitamin B12 absorption] which is normally foun
PHAGOCYTE Cell that engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it
PLASMA Liquid portion of blood containing proteins, water, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins.
PLASMAPHERESIS Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. Fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma.
PLATELET Clotting cell [thrombocyte]
PLATELET COUNT Number of platelets per cubic millimeter (mm³) or microliter (µL) of blood. Normally average between 150,000-350,000 per mm3 (or µL).
PLATELETPHERESIS Separation of platelets from the rest of the blood – Note that the a of apheresis is dropped in this term.
POIKILOCYTOSIS Irregularity in the shape of red blood cells; occurs in certain types of anemia.
POLYCYTHEMIA VERA Increase in numbers of erythrocytes [red blood cells]; Blood consistency is viscous (thick) – Also known as erythremia. The bone marrow is hyperplastic, and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis commonly accompany the increase in red blood cells. TREATMENT: ph
POLYMORPHONUCLEAR Pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic white blood cells); EXAMPLE: neutrophil.
PROTHROMBIN Plasma protein converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
PROTHROMBIN TIME [PT] Test of the ability of blood to clot. Prothrombin is one of the clotting factors (factor II) made by the liver. This test is used to monitor (follow) patients taking anticoagulant drugs. Another blood clotting test, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), meas
PURPURA Multiple PETECHIAE (pĕ-TĒ-kē-ā) [Small, pinpoint hemorrhages caused by bleeding under the skin] and ECCHYMOSES (ĕk-kĭ-MŌ-sēs) [Large blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises)] caused by deficiency of clotting cells (platelets). ETIOLOGY: thrombocytop
RED BLOOD CELL COUNT [RBC] Number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter (mm3) or microliter (µL) of blood. Normal number is 4 million to 6 million per mm3 (or µL).
RED BLOOD CELL MORPHOLOGY Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red blood cells. Abnormal morphology includes anisocytosis (ăn-ī-sō-sī-TŌ-sĭs), poikilocytosis (poy-kĭ-lō-sī-TŌ-sĭs), and sickle cells.
RETICULOCYTE Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum); is seen after staining the cell with special dyes.
Rh FACTOR Antigen [protein] on RBCs of Rh positive [Rh+] individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey.
SERUM Plasma minus clotting proteins [prothrombin and fibrinogen] and clotting cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Hereditary condition marked by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis; ETIOLOGY: Genetic defect (presence of the hemoglobin S gene) particularly prevalent among people of African or Hispanic ancestry and appears with different degrees of s
SIDEROPENIA Deficiency of iron in the blood
SPHEROCYTOSIS In this condition, the erythrocyte has a round shape, making the cell fragile and easily able to be destroyed; occurs in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia)
STEM CELL Unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms; EXAMPLE: Hematopoietic stem cell = the progenitor for all different types of blood cells.
THALASSEMIA Inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin leading to hypochromia, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background; ETIOLOGY: A defect in a gene affects production of globin, the protein that is the major component of hemoglobin. Particular
THROMBIN Enzyme necessary for blood clotting (converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process).
THROMBOCYTE Platelet; clotting cell
THROMBOCYTOPENIA Deficiency of clotting cells
THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY Treatment with drugs to break down clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels [Used to dissolve clots]
THROMBOSIS Condition of clot formation
WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT [WBC] Number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter (mm3) or microliter (µL) of blood. Normal number averages between 5000 and 10,000 per mm3 (or µL).
WHITE BLOOD CELL DIFFERENTIAL [count] Percentage of the total white blood cell count made up by the different types of leukocytes. Percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and immature cells (bands) are determined.
Created by: gsmackay