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Exam 1 -Chapter 2

Inorganic -Molecules lack carbon -Play important roles in organism’s metabolism -Excluding water, make up only 1.5% of organism’s mass
Organic -Molecules contain carbon and are necessary for life -Generally larger and more complex than inorganic molecules (macromolecules)
Four main families of macromolecules -Carbohydrates -Lipids -Proteins -Nucleic acids
Monomers Basic building blocks
Polymers Chains of monomers -All macromolecules form polymers by dehydration synthesis, except lipids
Dehydration synthesis - a reaction that removes a water molecule, links two monomers or two shorter polymers
Hydrolysis -a reaction that breaks bonds by the insertion of water
Carbohydrates Function Ready energy source Long-term storage of energy Part of backbone of nucleic acids Form cell walls and glycocalyces Structural and protective for plants, algae, and fungi Involved in intracellular interactions between animal cells
Carbohydrates Types Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides -Simplest carbohydrate, single ring structure -Example: glucose, fructose
Disaccharides -Two monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis -Examples: sucrose, lactose, maltose
Polysaccharides -Polymers comprised of many monomers linked through the dehydration process. Very diverse group: -Short or long chains -Made of same or different monomers -Branched or unbranched -Can be combined with lipids (glycolipids) or proteins (glycoproteins)
Examples of Polysaccharides Glycogen Starch Cellulose Chitin Peptidoglycan Lipopolysaccharide Glycocalyx
Glycogen -Energy storage in animals
Starch -energy storage in plants
Cellulose -cell walls of plants and algae
Chitin -exoskeleton of fungi and arthropods
Lipopolysaccharide -Peptidoglycan- cell wall of bacteria
Lipopolysaccharide - protective outer layer in Gram negative bacteria
Glycocalyx - sticky or slimy outer layer of some bacteria and eukaryotic cells
Lipids Hydrophobic- repels water
Four groups of lipid Fats (triglycerides) Phospholipids Steroids Waxes
Fats (triglycerides) -Function as an energy source, as well as storage of energy -Three fatty acid chains (4-24 carbons) linked to a molecule of glycerol -Presence and location of double bond(s) in chains is important
Saturated fats -Carbon atoms in chain are linked solely by single bonds, saturated with hydrogen -Found in animals, solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fats -At least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms exists, unsaturated (polyunsaturated, many double bonds), forms kinks in chain -Found in plants, liquid at room temperature
Lipids (phospholipids) -Make up outer membranes of all cells and internal membranes of organelles in eukaryotes -Two fatty acid chains (hydrophobic) linked to a glycerol containing a phosphate group (hydrophilic) -Phospholipids assemble as a bilayer
Lipids (sterols) -Functions: metabolism, hormones, add flexibility to cell membranes (cholesterol, ergosterol) -Comprised of four rings with various functional groups
Lipids (waxes) -Function as a protective layer for plants, insects and some microbes -Completely insoluble in water; lack hydrophilic head
Proteins -Most diverse group of organic macromolecules -Mostly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
Functions of Protein Structure Enzymatic catalysis Regulation Transportation Defense and offense
Amino Acids -Amino acids are the monomers that make up proteins -Most organisms use only 20 amino acids in the synthesis of proteins -Side groups affect how amino acids interact with one another and how a protein interacts with other molecules
Levels of protein structure -Primary sequence of amino acids to create polypeptide
Levels of protein structure -Secondary folding of polypeptide into a coil (α-helix) or accordion-like (β-pleated sheets) structure
Levels of protein structure-Tertiary polypeptide further folds into a complex three-dimensional globular shape, important for function
Levels of protein structure-Quaternary interaction of two or more polypeptides
Proteins (Enzymes) -Enzymes are organic catalysts -Speed up a reaction by lowering the amount of activation energy- -Not consumed of permanently changed by reaction -Specific for the reaction they catalyze
Enzyme activity -Many factors influence the rate of enzymatic reactions: Temperature pH Substrate concentration Presence of inhibitors
Inhibitors -Substances that block an enzyme’s active site -Do not denature enzymes -Often a heavy metal
Nucleic Acids Nucleotides: monomers that make up nucleic acids
3 parts of Nucleotides -Phosphate unit (1-3) -Pentose sugar- deoxyribose or ribose -One of five nitrogenous bases: Guanine(G), cytosine(C), adenine(A) and thymine (T) in DNA Guanine, cytosine, adenine and uracil (U) in RNA Adenine in ATP
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -Comprises the genetic material of all organisms and of many viruses, controls synthesis of all molecules in an organism. -Two very long strands linked by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases (a-t, g-c)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) -Comprises the genetic material of some viruses -Comprises the genetic material of some viruses -Single, shorter strand
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) -Energy supply for cell -Single nucleotide with 3 phosphates -Adenine nitrogen base
Created by: bonitasoul