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Exam 1 -Chapter 1

Microbiology Microbiology is the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms.​
Microorganisms (microbes) are all organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope​: Bacteria Archaea​ Protozoa​ Helminths​ Fungi​ Algae​ Viruses ​ ​
Impact of Microbes on Humans​ •Microbes are ubiquitous!​ Beneficial​: •Produce majority of available oxygen (photosynthesis)​ •Decomposition and nutrient recycling​ •Synthesize and help develop antibiotics​ •Recombinant DNA​ Vaccines, medications, genetically modified
General Organization of Microbes​ 1. Prokaryotic (Bacteria, Archaea)​ 10X smaller than eukaryotes, lack organelles​ 2.Eukaryotic (Protozoa, Fungi, Algae, Helminths)​ Larger, more complex, many organelles​ 3.Viruses​ Acellular (not a cell)​ Do not
Prokaryotic Microbes​ •Bacteria and Archaea​ - Prokaryotic, unicellular​ - Much smaller than eukaryotes​ -Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture; some isolated from extreme environments​ -Two kinds​: Bacteria ​and Archaea(do not cause disease in humans-Extre
Protozoa​ -Eukaryotes, single-celled​ -Similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular structure​ -Live freely in water; some live in animal hosts​ -Most are capable of locomotion by​: •Pseudopodia – cell extensions (“arms)​ •Cilia – numerous, short, hair-l
Fungi -Eukaryotic, possess cell walls​ -Obtain food from other organisms (degradation of plants and animals)​ -Composed of​: Molds – multi-cellular; grow as long filaments​ Yeasts – unicellular; form buds​ Mushrooms – multi-cellular; complex​
Algae -Unicellular or multicellular: Unicellular algae make up major food supply for small aquatic animals​ Multicellular algae include seaweeds and kelp​ -Photosynthetic, produce most of world’s oxygen as a by product of photosynthesis​ -Do not cause hum
Helminths​ -Parasitic worms (helminths)​: Macroscopic (adults), multicellular, eukaryotic​ Study by microbiologist because diagnostic stages (eggs and larvae are microscopic)​ Complex life cycle involving many hosts​
Three main groups of Parasitic worms (helminths) Cestodes (tapeworms) Trematodes (flukes) Nematodes (roundworms)
Non-cellular Microbes Viruses Viroids Prions
Viruses -Not visible in early years -Acellular, composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat -Require living host cell for replication (parasite)
Viroid -Similar to virus, no protein capsid, naked RNA -Infectious to plants
Prions -Small infectious particle, protein without nucleic acids -Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) -Began making and using simple microscopes -Often made a new microscope for each specimen -Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae, and single-celled protozoa; “animalcules”
Louis Pasteur -Pasteur developed germ theory of disease -Linked the spoilage of grapes by microorganisms to the potential cause of disease by microorganisms
Pasteur's application of the scientific method Pasteurization: use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of organisms that cause spoilage without ruining or changing the basic qualities of the food or drink.
Fall of Superstition and Rise of Microbiology Pasteur’s Experiments: -Boiled infusions in “swan-necked” flasks -When the flasks remained upright, no microbial growth appeared -When the flask was tilted, dust from the bend in the neck seeped back into the flask and made the infusion cloudy with mic
Robert Koch Robert Koch studied causative agents of disease -Anthrax: identified rod shaped bacteria in infected animals, proved that these bacteria always produced anthrax when injected into mice.
Medical Microbiology-Koch’s Postulates -Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts -Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host -When agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease -Same ag
Koch’s Contributions to Medical Microbiology -Simple staining techniques -First photomicrograph of bacteria -First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue -Techniques for estimating CFU/ml -Use of steam to sterilize media -Use of Petri dishes -Techniques to transfer bacteria -Bacteria
Semmelweis -Handwashing -Decreased number of women dying during childbirth
Lister -Aseptic technique -Used to clean surgical incisions, 2/3 more patients survived
Nightingale -Nursing -Introduced cleanliness and aseptic technique to nursing
Snow -Infection control and epidemiology -Linked the spread of cholera to contaminated water supply, need for sewage control
Jenner -vaccine – field of immunology -Used less virulent cowpox to prevent lethal smallpox
Ehrlich -Magic bullets” – field of chemotherapy -Development of chemicals to kill microbes
Molecular Biology Combination of biochemistry, cell biology and genetics to explain cell function at a molecular level
Recombinant DNA Technology -(Genetic Engineering) -Genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications (bioremediation, genetically modified foods, medications)
Gene Therapy Introduction of new genetic material into a diseased cell or organism to correct its affliction
Vaccination -(immunization): development of inoculums to stimulate a protective immune defense strategy against diseases
Serology -study of antibodies and antigens in serum and their ability to diagnose and treat disease
Immunology study of the body’s specific defenses against disease
Chemotherapy study of chemicals (antibiotics) and their potential to destroy pathogenic microorganisms
Taxonomy -Consists of identification, classification and nomenclature -Organize large amounts of information about organisms -Make predictions based on knowledge of similar organisms
Process of Taxonomy -Identification: process of recording traits, so that they maybe recognized and placed into correct taxa -Classification: assigning organism to taxa according based on similarities -Nomenclature: assignment of a scientific name
Linnaeus -First to develop a system to classify organisms, based on characteristics in common -Grouped organisms that can successfully interbreed into categories called species -Linnaeus proposed only two kingdoms (plant and animal)
Whittaker -Whittaker proposed taxonomic approach based on five kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Prokaryotae
Woese and Fox -Goal of modern taxonomy is to reflect phylogenetic hierarchy -Greater emphasis on comparisons of organisms’ genetic material led to proposal to add domain -Compared nucleotide sequences of rRNA subunits -Proposal of three domains as determined by the
Created by: bonitasoul