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Medical Ethics

Making Ethical Decisions

being, or B-needs. basic life—food and shelter 2. safe and secure environment 3. belong and to be loved 4. esteem, where status, responsibility, and recognition are important 5. self-actualization, for personal growth and fulfillment
Abraham Maslow Motivation and Personality, first published in 1954, identified a hierarchy of needs that motivates our actions
needs-based motivation theory that human behavior is based on specific human needs that must often be met in a specific order
Sensorimotor Stage the child is totally self-centered - birth to age 2
Preoperational or Egocentric Stage age 2 to 7, the child views the world from their own perspective
Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 12, children tend to see things as wither right or wrong
Formal Operational Stage children develop abstract thought and begin to understand that there may be different degrees of wrongdoing
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational or Egocentric Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage
Lawrence Kohlberg modified and expanded Piaget's work pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, Post-conventional morality
pre-conventional morality children begin to recognize that there may be more than just one view as to what is right or wrong. They begin to look at their own self-interest and begin to see advantages in the exchanging of favors.
conventional morality “good boy/good girl” children become more aware of doing one's duty. The focus is on the rules and respect for authority.
Post-conventional morality two stages to this level: A. post-conventional morality B: second stage of post-conventional morality is called universal principles
universal principles individual makes a personal commitment to such universal principles as social justice, equal rights, and respect for the dignity of all people and realizes that conventional norms and conventions are necessary to uphold society
post-conventional morality this stage, individuals explore how to balance individual rights and a fair society for all.
teleological or consequence-oriented theory Decision-making theory that judges the rightness or wrongness based on the outcomes or predicted outcomes
utilitarianism consequence-oriented theory that states that decisions should be made by determining what results will produce the best outcome for the most people
principle of utility utilitarianism; requires that the rule used in making a decision must bring about positive results when generalized to a wide variety of situations
deontological or duty-oriented theory Decision-making theory that states that the rightness or wrongness of the act depends on its intrinsic nature and not the outcome of the act.
categorical imperative rule that is considered universal law binding on everyone and requiring action
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) considered the father of duty-oriented theory
virtue ethics Refers to the theory that people who have moral virtues will make the right decisions
Duty-oriented theories a foundation for rules of morality and for the idea of individual rights -- The Golden Rule is often cited in support of this theory
Alasdair MacIntyre (1929–present) well-known ethicist to write about virtue ethics. argued that our practice of medicine has traditions and standards of practice that apply to every health care practitioner
AUTONOMY OR SELF-DETERMINATION capacity to be one's own person, to make decisions based on one's own reasons
BENEFICENCE Acts performed by a health care practitioner to help people stay healthy or recover from illness, acts of charity and mercy
nonmaleficence paraphrased from the Hippocratic oath, means the duty to “do no harm.”
CONFIDENTIALITY Keeping medical information strictly private
JUSTICE Providing to an individual what is his or her due
ROLE FIDELITY Being faithful to the scope of the services for which you are licensed, certified, or registered
VERACITY truth telling
Created by: baybro9933