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Praxis Review 5025

Early Childhood Praxis Review (1)

Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs, which he theorized to be the unconscious desires that motivate people.
accommodations provide students access to the same curriculum as their grade-level peers, but information is presented in a different way. (calculators, audio, larger text)
Albert Bandura a Canadian psychologist who developed the social learning theory.
Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination based on disabilities. This includes activities that take place both on and off campus, including athletics and extracurricular activities.
attribution blames other people for their mistakes and misfortunes but excuses oneself.
B.F. Skinner expanded on operant conditioning. He concluded that reinforcement must be part of the leaning. In a classroom, this means allowing the learner time to meet learning goals and offering lots of praise and positive reinforcement along the way.
basic interpersonal communication skills ((BICS) is conversational English
Benjamin Bloom identified 3 domains or categories of learning: cognitive (knowledge) , social (attitude) and psychomotor(skills). Each domain has its own hierarchy and must be mastered before moving to the next level.
classic conditioning This practice involves learning a response to stimuli or the environment
classical conditioning a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a reflex response through conditioning
code-switching happens when students slip into native language while speaking their second-language, or vice versa
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) is a students ability to comprehend academic vocabulary in English. It takes 5-7 years to become academically proficient in a new language
cognitive disabilities impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
cognitive dissonance theory uneasiness felt when an individual has conflicting thoughts
cognitive domain controls the development of intellect
cognitive process involve acquiring new knowledge and skills and being able to apply new learning to new situations and draw conclusions from it
differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs
divergent thinkers people who think more deeply and differently from other people
Edward Thorndike a psychologist whose research led to operative conditioning
Thorndike's learning laws include the law of effect, the law of readiness, and the law of exercise
operative conditioning is learning how to behave because of rewards or punishments that are given in response to conduct
engage inspiring interest or motivation
English-language learner (ELL) students whose native language is not English
English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) objectives that not only support ESL instruction but also increase students' academic readiness in the content areas
Erik Erikson his theory of psychosocial development focuses on reconciling individual needs with the needs of society through stages
exceptionality is a strength or weakness in academic functioning that requires extra attention extrinsic motivation
extrinsic motivation describes an external reward
feedback information about performance
foundational theorists people who provided the framework by which all current knowledge of cognitive
individualized education plan (IEP) an annual meeting for each special education student that outlines the student's learning goals and identifies the accommodations and modifications that will be offered to the student.
intrinsic motivation describes and internal reward
Jean Piaget the first to study cognition in children. He identifies stages of development and contributed to schema learning.
Jerome Bruner a constructivist theorist who contributed to the three modes of representation to the field of cognitive development
John Dewey a pragmatic philosopher who viewed learning as a series of scientific inquiry and experimentation. He advocated real-world experiences and volunteerism
John Watson coined the term behaviorism, which objectively measures behavior in response to stimuli
knowledge acquired intellectual information
language acquisition the process by which a new language is learned
Lawrence Kohlberg identified the stages of moral develoment
learning styles learning styles research indicates that children learn in different ways
learning theories describe how genetics, development, environment, motivation, and emotions affect a student's ability to acquire and apply knowledge
Lev Vygotsky identified the zone of proximal development
metacognition thinking about the learning process
modifications changes made to the curriculum because students are so far behind that they are unable to use the same curriculum as their peers
moral domain deals with the acquisition of morals and values
motivation theory explains the driving forces behind conduct
motor disabilities loss of movement cause by injury or disease
operant condition provides rewards or punishment as a motivation for desired performance
physical disabilities impairments that require assistance during the school day
physical domain deals with all aspects of motor skill development
positive reinforcement praise, recognition, or reward to encourage good behavior
redirect to distract students from negative behavior by channeling their attention into something positive
schema frameworks for understanding
504 provides services to all students in federally assisted programs who have physical or mental impairments
self efficacy when a person believes that he or she is capable of achieving a learning goal.
self motivation the drive from within that inspires a person to work toward something
self regulate to maintain control of one's own emotional responses
skills abilities to apply what has been learned
social domain includes emotions, motivation, and attitudes
speech disorders students that have difficulty forming words
transfer to apply knowledge to make inferences about new thought and ideas
visual impairments problems with eyesight, such as blindness
zone of proximal development (ZPD) the space between what a child can do independently and the learning goal
learning domain cognitive, affective and psychomotor
Bloom's Taxonomy classifies cognitive processes from simple to abstract
affective domain focuses on behavior, values, and motivation
Created by: eileenrothstein