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# Science PASS Review

### 8th Grade Science PASS Review

TermDefinition
Speed A measurement that describes any object in motion.
Instantaneous Speed The speed of an object at one instant time.
Average Speed The overall rate of speed at which an object moves.
Velocity Speed in a given direction.
Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes.
Force A push or pull.
Newton The strength in which a force is measured in the SI unit.
Net Force The combination of all forces on an object.
Balanced Force Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.
Unbalanced Force When a net force acts on an object.
Energy The ability to cause change or do work.
Potential Energy Energy that results from the position of an object.
Kinetic Energy Energy that results from the motion of an object.
Friction The force that two surfaces exert on each other when they rub against each other.
Gravity A force that pulls objects toward each other.
Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Weight A measure of the force of gravity of an object.
Inertia Resistance to change in motion.
Wave A disturbance involving the transfer of energy from place to place.
Energy The ability to do work.
Medium The material through which a wave travels.
Mechanical Wave Waves that require a medium to travel through.
Vibration A repeated back-and-forth or up-and-down motion.
Transverse Wave A wave vibrates the medium at right angles, or perpendicular, to the direction in which it travels.
Crest A high point on a transverse wave.
Trough A low point on a transverse wave.
Longitudinal wave Vibrates the medium in the same direction in which the wave travels.
Compression An area where coils are close together on a longitudinal wave.
Rarefaction An area where coils are spread out on a longitudinal wave.
Amplitude The maximum distance the medium vibrates from the rest position.
Wavelength The distance between two corresponding parts of a wave.
Frequency The number of waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time.
Hertz The units frequency is measured in.
Reflection The bouncing back of a wave when it meets a surface, or boundary, that does not absorb the entire wave's energy.
Refraction The bending of waves due to a change in speed as they pass from one medium to another.
Diffraction The spread, or bend, of a wave when it moves around a barrier or through an opening in a barrier.
Constructive Interference Interference in which waves combine to form a wave with a larger amplitude than both of the individual wave's.
Destructive Interference Interference in which two waves combine to form a wave with a smaller amplitude than either original wave had.
Electromagnetic Wave A transverse wave that involves the transfer of electric and magnetic energy.
Electromagnetic Radiation The energy that electromagnetic waves transfer through matter or space.
Polarized Light The light that passes through a polarizing filter.
Photoelectric Effect When a beam of high frequency light shines on a metal and causes electrons to move so much that they are knocked out of the metal.
Photon A particle of light energy.
Electromagnetic Spectrum The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency.
Amplitude Modulation The method of broadcasting signals by changing the amplitude of a wave.
Frequency Modulation The method of broadcasting signals by changing the frequency of a wave,
Transparent A material that transmits most of the light that strikes it.
Translucent A material that scatters the light that passes through it.
Opaque A material that reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it.
Plane Mirror A mirror with a flat reflective surface. Plane mirrors reflect light at the same angle it hits the surface.
Virtual Image The image you see in a plane mirror.
Lens A curved piece of glass or other transparent material that forms an image by refracting light.
Concave Lens A lens that is thinner in the center than at the edges. Concave lens can only produce virtual images.
Convex Lens A lens that is thicker in the center than at the edges. Convex lens form real and virtual images.
Nearsighted Being able to see things nearby clearly, but not objects at a distance.
Farsighted Being able to see distant objects clearly, but not nearby objects.
Camera An object that records an image. The lenses focus light to form a real, upside-down image in the back of the camera.
Telescope An object that uses lenses, or mirrors, to focus and collect light on a distant object to form an enlarged image of it.
Microscope An object that uses a combination of lenses to produce an enlarged image of a tiny object.
Orbit The paths planets take as they revolve around the Sun.
Ellipse The oval shaped path that planets take around a Sun.
Solar System Our solar system consists of the Sun, the planets, their moons, and other smaller objects including asteroids, meteors, and comets.
Planet Must be round, orbit the Sun, and have cleared out the region of the solar system along its orbit.
Astronomical Unit The average difference between Earth and the Sun.
Axis The imaginary line that passes through Earth's center, and the North and South poles.
Astronomy The study of space objects, space, and the universe as a whole.
Rotation The spinning of the planets on its axis.
Revolution The movement of the planets around the Sun.
Calendar A system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year.
Solstice When the Sun appears farthest North of the equator once each year and farthest South once each year.
Equinox When noon Sun is directly overhead as the equator, rises due East, and sets due West. This occurs halfway between the solstices when neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
Law of Universal Gravitation States that every object in the universe attracts every other object.
Nuclear Fusion The process in which hydrogen atoms join to form helium.
Solar Wind Electrically charged particles.
Sunspots Areas of gas on the sun's surface that are cooler than the gases around them.
Prominence Huge loops of gas that often link different parts of sunspot regions.
Solar Flare Eruptions of gas in sunspot regions.
Terrestrial Planets The inner planets. They are small, dense, and have rocky surfaces.
Greenhouse Effect The trapping of heat by the atmosphere.
Gas Giants The four outer planets. They are larger and more massive than Earth, and they do not have solid surfaces.
Ring A thin disk of small particles of ice and rock.
Asteroid Belt A region of the solar system between Mars and Jupiter.
Kuiper Belt A region beyond Neptune's orbit.
Relative Age The age of a rock compared to the ages of other rocks.
Absolute Age The number of years that have passed since the rock formed.
Law of Superposition In undisturbed horizontal sedimentary rock layers, the oldest layer is at the bottom. Each higher layer is younger than the layers below it.
Index Fossil A fossil that helps geologists match rock layers.
Unconformity A gap in the geologic record.
Created by: prettyinpurple