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DISEASE PROCESSES

Intro to Fundamentals of Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
Introduction to Pathology: Pathology means: study of disease.
Pathogenic (pathogenesis) means: pertaining to disease creation.
Any deviation or disruption of normal body function is called: pathology (disease).
Deviation means: change.
Disruption means: loss.
Reputable (trustworthy) pathology information can be found at the CDCP which stands for: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (www.cdc.gov).
Pathology means: study of disease.
Idiopathic means: unknown disease.
Etiology means: study of the cause.
Evidence of pathology (disease) that is seen is abbreviated Sx which stands for: signs.
Evidence means: proof.
Abnormal tissue caused by trauma or pathology (disease) is called: lesion.
Tissue refers to groups of cells: (microscopic basic units of life).
Trauma means: wound or injury.
Examples of signs (Sx) include: 1. Pyrexia which means fever.
2. Leukocytosis which means abnormal condition of (excessive) white cells.
3. Pallor which means paleness.
Signs (Sx) are evidence (proof) of pathology (disease) that is: seen.
Evidence of pathology that is felt is abbreviated SX which stands for: symptom.
Evidence means: proof.
Pathology means: study of disease.
A combination (mix) of signs (Sx) and symptoms (SX) is called: syndrome (i.e. "flu syndrome").
Examples of symptoms (SX) include: 1. Lumbodynia which means low back pain.
Examples of symptoms (SX) include: 2. N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
Relieving symptoms (SX) but not curing is called: palliative care.
Relieving means: Lessening.
Palliative care for many types of allergies includes the: administration (giving) of antihistamines.
Examples of symptoms (SX) include: 3. Pruritus which means itching.
Symptoms (SX) are evidence (proof): of pathology (disease) that is felt.
The predicted outcome of pathology is abbreviated Px which means: prognosis.
Predicted means: likely.
Outcome means: result
The aftereffect of pathology (disease) is called: sequela.
Pathology (disease) means any: deviation (change) or disruption (loss) of any normal body function.
Pathology (disease) with a sudden onset is called: acute or paroxysmal.
Sudden means: rapid (fast).
Onset means: beginning.
A possible sequela (aftereffect) for a VZV infection is abbreviated HZ which stands for: herpes zoster also known as (aka) shingles.
VZV stands for: varicella zoster virus aka chicken pox.
A sudden heart attack is abbreviated AMI which stands for: acute myocardial infarction.
An acute (sudden) fast heart rate (HR) can be abbreviated PT which stands for: paroxysmal tachycardia.
Pathology (disease) slow to appear is called: insidious.
The period of time when signs (Sx) and symptoms (SX) of a chronic (recurring) pathology (disease) abate (subside) is called: remission.
Abate (subside) means; diminish (lessen) or disappear.
To aggravate pathology (disease) is called: exacerbate (exacerbation)
Aggravate means: worsen.
Pulmonary (lung) pathology (disease) is exacerbated (aggravated) by: smoking.
Pathology (disease) that returns is called: relapse.
A secondary (2nd) pathology (disease) that develops during a primary (1st) pathology (disease) is called a: complication.
Recurring (repeating) pathology (disease) is called: chronic.
Asthma is a type of COPD which stands for: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
A dangerous complication of influence (flu) is an: inflammation of a/the lung (s) called pneumonia.
Complication means: a secondary (2nd) pathology (disease) develops during a primary (1st) pathology (disease)
Pathology (disease) that ends in death is called: terminal.
The number of deaths caused by pathology (disease) is called: mortality.
Postmortem means; after death.
The number of existing (current) cases of pathology (disease) is called; prevalence.
The number of new cases of pathology (disease) is called: incidence.
Pathology (disease) that suddenly occurs (happens) in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then abates (subsides) is called an: outbreak.
Abate (subsides) means: diminish (lessen) or disappear.
The incidence of cancer (CA), heart disease (HD), obesity, and low immune response is associated with: sleep deprivation.
Incidence means; number of new cases of pathology (disease)
The US is currently experiencing an outbreak of pertussis which is more commonly called: whooping cough aka 100 day cough.
Pathology (disease) that regularly occurs at low levels is called: endemic.
An endemic that occurs between October and March in the US is: influenza (flu).
Pathology (disease) that occurs (happens) at high levels is called: epidemic.
An epidemic in the US is abbreviated DM which stands for: diabetes mellitus.
An epidemic that spreads over large areas worldwide is called: pandemic.
Epidemic means pathology (disease) that occurs (happens) at high levels.
Mortality rate means: number of deaths caused by pathology (disease).
Pandemic means an epidemic that: spreads over large areas worldwide.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infections are caused by proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogenic (disease creating) microorganisms (microbes) called: pathogens
Pathogens include: 1. Pathogenic bacteria.
Pathogens include: 2. Pathogenic viruses.
Pathogens include: 3. Pathogenic fungi.
Bacteria, viruses and fungi are: microorganisms (microbes).
Proliferation means: rapid reproduction.
A pathogen (disease creating microbe) that can be transmitted from one person to another is called: communicable or contagious.
Transmitted means: spread.
A pathogen's ability to proliferate and overwhelm (defeat) the immune system is called: virulence (virulent).
The most common mode of transmission for pathogens (disease creating microbes) is by: touch.
Mode means: manner.
Transmitted means: spread.
Separation of individuals who can easily transmit pathogens is called: quarantine aka isolation.
Transmit means: spread.
The most effective method to prevent (stop) the transmission (spread) of pathogen (disease creating microbes) is: proper hand washing.
Effective means: successful.
Method means: way.
BACTERIAL PATHOGENS: Bacterial pathogens include: 1. Streptococci aka strep. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of streptococci (strep) can cause strep throat.
Bacterial pathogens (disease creating microbes) include: 2. Staphylococci aka staph. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of staphylococci (staph) can cause a bacterial skin infection called impetigo.
Bacterial pathogens include: 3. Salmonella aka food poisoning. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of salmonella can cause gastroenteritis which means inflammation of the stomach and small intestine (small bowel).
Bacterial pathogens (disease creating microbes) include: 4. E. Coli aka Escherichia coli. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) can cause a UTI which stands for urinary infection.
Proliferation of E. Coli can cause gastroenteritis which means: inflammation of the stomach and small intestine (small bowel).
Bacterial pathogens include: 5. GC which stands for gonococci. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of gonococci (GC) can cause the sexually transmitted disease (STD) called gonorrhea.
Bacterial pathogens include: 6. C. diff aka clostridium difficile. Proliferation (rapid reproduction) of clostridium difficile (C. diff) can cause severe diarrhea which means more than ten (10) loose, watery stools in 24 hours.
Severe diarrhea can cause a deficiency of body fluid volume called: dehydration.
Volume means: amount.
Dehydration can lead to a life-threatening shock called: hypovolemic shock.
CARCINOGENIC AGENTS Carcinogenic agent means: cancer creating cause.
Cancer that can spread is called: malignant.
cancer that does not spread is called: benign.
Carcinogenic (cancer creating) agents (causes) include: 1. UVA + UVB which stand for ultraviolet radiation (A+B).
Carcinogenic (cancer creating) agents (cause) include: 2. Tobacco which increases the risk of mouth, lung, vocal cords, throat, esophagus, liver, colon + rectum, kidney, pancreas, stomach, uterus and urinary bladder malignancies.
Carcinogenic (cancer creating) agents (causes) include: 3. Poor nutrition from insufficient consumption of fruits + vegetables.
Carcinogenic (cancer creating) agents (causes) include: 4. Poor nutrition from consumption of fat.
Carcinogenic (cancer creating) agents (causes) include: 5. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially the HPV which increases the risk of cervical (uterine) malignancies (70%).
HPV stands for: human papillomavirus.
A neoplasm (new growth) that spreads from a primary (1st) site to a secondary (2nd) site is called: metastasis (metastatic) "mets".
Site means: location.
A neoplasm that does not metastasize is called: benign.
BENIGN NEOPLASMS: Benign neoplasms include: 1. Adenoma(s) aka a glandular tumor(s)
Neoplasms are: new growths or tumors.
Benign neoplasms (new growths) include: 2. Lipoma(s) aka fatty tumor(s).
Benign means: a neoplasm that does not metastasize (spread)
Benign neoplasms (new growths) include: 3. Myoma(s) aka muscle tumor(s).
Benign (non-metastasizing) neoplasms include: 4. Angioma(s) aka a vascular tumor(s) or lymphatic tumor(s).
Benign neoplasms (new growths) include: 5. Nevus (nevi) aka mole(s).
Benign (non-metastasizing) neoplasms include: 6. Papilloma(s) aka polyp(s) or verruca(e)
Verruca(e) is/are: warts.
Immunity can be achieved (gained) with the administration (giving) of an: immunization aka inoculation or vaccination (vaccine).
Immunity means the ability to defend (protect) against: pathogens, allergens and cancer (CA).
A vaccination (vaccine) is a: pathogen that has been attenuated or inactivated which means crippled (attenuated) or killed (inactivated).
Vaccination (vaccine) is aka: immunization or inoculation.
An attenuated (crippled) or inactivated (dead) pathogen will stimulate (cause) the immune system to produce (create): immunoglobulins called antibodies aka immune proteins.q
An attenuated or inactivated pathogen: does not cause disease because it is unable to replicate (reproduce).
Attenuated means: crippled.
Inactivated means: dead.
Antibiotics have no effect against: viral infections.
CANCER: Reputable information regarding cancer (CA) can be found at the ACS which stands for: American Cancer Society.
Reputable means: trustworthy.
Multiple exposures to an attenuated (crippled) or inactivated (dead) pathogen can cause a stronger and longer lasting immunity (defense) which is the reason for:
Genetic (DNA) defect(s) resulting in the production of cancer (CA) cells is calld: mutation aka neoplasm (new growth) or tumor (-oma)
Defect(s) means: flaw(s).
A natural immunity inherited genetically from your ancestors is called: an innate immunity defense.
Inherited means: received (gotten)
Genetically means: hereditary or familial.
A neoplasm that can spread is called: malignant.
Carcinoma and sarcoma refer to: malignancies.
Signs (Sx) and symptoms (SX) of the inflammatory response (reaction) include:
Created by: bterrelonge