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Disease definitions

Disease a change in the state of a host's health resulting in inability to carry out normal function
Clinical disease obvious change with readily detectable signs of illness/dysfunction
Subclinical disease no readily detectable signs of illness/dysfunction, subtle changes in productivity, growth and fitness which may only be detectable using lab tests
Toxin a chemical produced by an infectious agent
Infection when an infectious agent is present within or on a host
Carrier a host that is able to spread an infectious agent to others, but may be resistant to developing the disease themselves
Parasitism a symbiotic relationship that causes harm in the host
Mutualism a symbiotic relationship that benefits both the organism and the host e.g. rumen microflora in a cow
Commensalism a symbiotic relationship that results in no obvious harm to the host e.g. bacteria on skin
Zoonoses diseases caused by infectious agents that can be transmitted between humans and animals
Virulence degree of pathology caused by the organism (severity)
Classification hierarchy Kingdom --> Phylum --> Class --> Order --> Family --> Genus --> Species
Strain an organism within a species which is a cloncal descendent from a single isolate
Obligate aerobe requires oxygen
Obligate anaerobe don't require oxygen, oxygen is toxic
Microaerophilic grows in presence of oxygen as long as the levels are low
Facultative anaerobe can switch between aerobic/anaerobic metabolism. Ferment when no oxygen
Aerotolerant ferment whether there is oxygen present or not
Virion infectious virus particle
Fomite non-living objects that can carry infectious agents
Saprophyte a plant, fungus, or microorganism that lives on dead or decaying organic matter
Obligate parasite parasitic organism that cannot complete its life-cycle without exploiting a host
Vertical transmission transmission from parent to offspring
Horizontal transmission transmisison between individuals by a physical means
Iatrogenic transmission transmission of an infectious agent as a result of a medical examination or treatment
Created by: tazza261