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Chapter 10.2

The Muscular System

What role does smooth muscle play in digestive and urinary systems? forms sphincters, and produces contractions
What role does smooth muscle play in integumentary system? arrector pili muscles cause goose bumps
This type of muscle tissue is nonstriated. smooth muscle
Name the 5 characteristics of smooth muscle cells. Long, slender, and spindle shaped Have a single, central nucleus
Myosin fibers have more heads per thick filament in this type of muscle tissue. Smooth muscle
In smooth muscle thin filaments are attached to what? dense bodies
What do dense bodies do in smooth muscle? they transmit contractions from cell to cell
What are the functional characteristics of smooth muscle? excitation-contraction coupling length-tension relationships
What triggers contraction in smooth muscle? free Ca2+ in the cytoplasm
In smooth muscle Ca2+ binds with calmodulin in the sarcoplasm and what does it activate? myosin light chain kinase
Contraction is initiated in smooth muscle when this happens. when enzymes break down ATP
What are multi-unit smooth muscle cells connected to? motor neurons
Are visceral smooth muscle cells connected to motor neurons? no
What kind of cells control rhythmic cycles of activity? pacesetter cells
This maintains normal levels of activity What is smooth muscle tone
What is modified by neural, hormonal, or chemical factors? smooth muscle tone
What role does smooth muscle play in reproductive and glandular systems? produces movement
What role does smooth muscle play in blood vessels? it regulates blood pressure and flow
This type of muscle tissue forms around other tissues. smooth muscle tissue
What is automaticity? contraction without neural stimulation controlled by pacemaker cells
What are the four functions of cardiac tissue? 1. automaticity 2. variable contraction tension
Intercalated discs help the heart function like a _____________, ___________ mass of cells. single, fused
What are the three ways intercalated discs link heart cells? mechanically, chemically, and electrically
These join cell membrane of adjacent cardiocytes intercalated discs (cardiac muscle)
Name the three functions of intercalated discs. 1. maintain structure 2. enhance molecular and electrical connections
These are specialized contact points between cardiocytes. intercalated discs
Name the 7 characteristic of cardiocytes. 1. are small 2. have a single nucleus 3. have short, wide T tubules 4. have no triads 5. have SR with no terminal cisternae 6. are aerobic (high in myoglobin, mitochondria) 7. have intercalated discs
Describe cardiac tissue and where it is located. it is striated and found only in the heart
Created by: ehaney2722