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Chapter 11

The Muscular System

This system consists only skeletal muscles The Muscular System
Muscle cells are also called what? fibers
Muscle cells are organized into bundles called what? fascicles
How are skeletal muscles classified? 1. by the way fascicles are organized 2. by relationships of fascicles to tendons
What are the four patterns of fascicle organization? 1. parallel 2. convergent 3. pennate 4. circular
Give an example of a parallel muscle biceps brachii
Which part of a parallel muscle thickens during contraction? the center or body of the muscle thickens
What percentage does a parallel muscle contract? 30%
What does tension depend of in parallel muscles? total number of myofibrils
In parallel muscle, 1 square inch of muscle yeilds how many pounds of tension? 50 pounds
This muscle has fibers on 1 side of the tendon like the extensor digitorum unipennate
This muscle has fibers on 1 side of the tendon like the rectus femoris muscle bipennate
In this muscle tendon branches within muscle like the deltoi multipennate
Describe pennate muscles. form an angel with tendon, don't move as far as parallel muscles, contain more myofibrils than parallel muscles and develop more tension than parallel muscles
Circular muscles are also called what? sphincters
This type of muscle opens and closes to guard entrances of body. circular muscles like obicularis oris
Mechanically each bone is a __________ and each joint is a ____________. level, fulcrum
muscles provide _____________ and thus are required to overcome _______________. applied force, resistance
functions of levers are to change what three things direction of an applied force distance and speed of movement produced by an applied force eff
Effects of Aging on the Muscular System 1. skeletal muscle fibers become smaller in diameter 2. skeletal muscles become less elastic: develop increasing amounts of fibrous tissue (called fibrosis) 3. decreased tolerance for exercise 4. decreased ability to recover from muscular injuries
What do the muscles of the appendicular skeleton do? position and stabilize pectoral and pelvic girdles move upper and lower limbs divisions of appendicular muscles; upper and lower limbs
Created by: ehaney2722