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Medical Office 1

Interpersonal Communication

communication circle formed as the source sends a message to the receiver and the receiver responds
feedback verbal or nonverbal evidence that the receiver got and understood the message
Noise Anything that changes the message in any way or interferes with the communication process. also, room temperature and other types of physical comfort or discomfort, such as pain, and to emotions, such as fear or sadness
Human growth includes physical, psychological, and emotional
Erik Erikson lifespan development model
Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs and that certain lower needs have to be satisfied before higher needs
Trust vs. Mistrust (infant 0-1yr) newborn experiences a degree of familiarity and trust the world around them
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (toddler 2-3) child will begin to explore their environment and gain independence
initiative vs guilt (preschooler 3-6) child learns new things and has an active imagination and curiosity. developing capacity for moral judgement
industry vs inferiority (school age 7-12) failure to experience success at this stage can result in inferiority feelings
ego identity vs role confusion (adolescence 12-18) discovering where they fit in society -- role confusion develops follower personality traits, which can lead to inappropriate decision making
intimacy vs isolation (young adult 20s) begins to think about marriage, family, and careers. isolation issues stem from working from home or moving away from family for work
generativity vs stagnation (middle adult this stage is devoted to raising children, this group has a desire to teach, write or become involved in social activism
integrity vs despair (old adults 60s and up) usually retired, begin to experience death of friends and family
Deficiency (Basic) Needs  physiological, safety, love/belonging, and esteem—that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. Once our basic needs are met and our feelings are alleviated, we may think about other things
Physiological Needs very basic needs, air, water, food, sleep, and sex
homeostasis a state of balance, or equilibrium
Safety Needs security, shelter, and a safe environment
Love/Belonging Needs Humans have a desire to belong to groups: We need to feel loved and accepted by others
Esteem Needs two types of self-esteem. <first results from competence, or mastery of a task, such as completing an educational program. >second is the attention and recognition that come from others
Self-actualization To reach this level, a person utilizes many tools to maximize potential, such as education, a fulfilling career, and a balanced personal life. Self-actualized people are generally comfortable with who they are and know their strengths and weaknesses.
Considering Patients’ Needs working and communicating with patients, remember this hierarchy of human needs and observe what need a patient is deficient in
Positive Verbal Communication Being friendly, warm, and attentive, Smiling, Listening carefully, Open posture
Negative Verbal Communication Mumbling •Speaking brusquely or sharply •Avoiding eye contact •Interrupting patients as they are speaking •Rushing through explanations or instructions •Treating patients impersonally
body language consists of facial expressions, eye contact, posture, touch, and attention to personal space
Facial Expression Your face is the most expressive part of your body
Eye Contact is an important part of positive communication. Look directly at patients when speaking to them
Posture way you hold or move your head, arms, hands, and the rest of your body can project strong nonverbal messages. During communication, posture can usually be described as open or closed.
Open Posture In this position, your arms lie comfortably at your sides or in your lap. You face the other person, and you may lean forward in your chair. This demonstrates that you are listening and are interested in what the other person has to say
Closed Posture signal that someone is angry or upset. A person in a closed posture may hold his arms rigidly or fold them across his chest.
Touch powerful form of nonverbal communication. Family background, culture, age, and gender all influence people’s perception of touch.
Personal Space social situations, it is common for people to stand 4 to 12 feet away from each other, personal conversation, you would typically stand between 1 and 4 feet away from a person
Passive listening simply hearing what someone has to say without the need for a reply
Active listening involves two-way communication. You are actively involved in the process, offering feedback or asking questions
Ways to improve listening skills Position yourself at the same level (sitting, standing) as the person who is speaking; Relax and listen attentively; Maintain eye contact and appropriate personal space; Think before you respond
interpersonal skills warmth and friendliness, valuable interpersonal skills include empathy, respect, genuineness, openness, consideration, and sensitivity.
Warmth and Friendliness friendly but professional approach, a pleasant greeting, and a smile get you off to a good start when communicating with patients
Empathy When you are sympathetic, you feel sorry for or feel pity for the person and his or her circumstances
Respect courtesy; when communicating with patients
Genuineness refrain from “putting on an act” or just going through the motions of your job
Openness willing to listen to and consider others’ viewpoints and concerns and being receptive to their needs
Consideration and Sensitivity show consideration toward patients and act in a thoughtful, kind way
Assertiveness Skills they try to impose their position on others or try to manipulate them. Aggressive people are bossy and can be quarrelsome
Therapeutic communication ability to communicate with patients in terms they can understand
Being silent Silence allows the patient time to think without pressure
Accepting shows that you have heard the patient and follow the patient’s thought pattern
Giving recognition Show patients that you are aware of them by stating their name in a greeting or by noticing positive changes
Offering self Make yourself available to the needs of the patient
Giving a broad opening Ask open-ended questions
Offering general leads Give the patient encouragement
Defense Mechanisms Compensation: •Denial: •Displacement: •Dissociation: •Identification: •Introjection: •Projection:• Rationalization:• Regression• Repression• Substitution
Created by: baybro9933



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