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Ch14- Special Senses

The Ear

Two important functions of the ear Enables us to hear and is the sensory organ of balance or equilibrium
Binaural Hearing Hearing from both sides
External ear (Outer Ear) Visible portion, fleshy part, visible on side of head
The External ear is also known Auricle or Pinna (ear lobe)
External auditory canal S shaped Tube leading from auricle to middle ear; lined with cilia for transmitting sound waves inward, and ceruminous glands, which secrete cerumen (earwax) for lubrication of the ear
Tympanic membrane (Eardrum) Separates external ear from middle ear; Membrane for transmission of sound vibrations to inner ear via ossicles
The Middle ear contains Three tiny bones known as Auditory Ossicles- malleus, Incus, Stapes
Malleus Resembles shape of a hammer; connected to tympanic membrane and transmits sound vibrations to Incus
Incus Resemble shape of anvil Transmits sound vibrations from Malleus to Stapes
Stapes Shaped like a tiny stirrup Transmits sound vibrations from Incus to inner ear; Attached to oval window of the cochlea
The Middle Ear (Eustachian Tube) Connects middle ear to pharynx; Also called auditory tube; Equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear with the outside air pressure
Oval Window Separates middle ear from inner ear Base of stapes fits into oval window
The Inner Ear Vestibule Central portion of inner ear; Located next to stapes and between cochlea and semicircular canals; Contains utricle and saccule (membranous pouches or sacs that aid in maintaining balance)
Cochlea Snail-shaped bony structure; Contains endolymph and perilymph (fluids aiding transmission of sound vibrations), functions in hearing
Organ of Corti True organ of hearing; Spiral structure (contained within the cochlea); Contains hair cells that are stimulated by sound vibrations, which are converted into nerve impulses that are transmitted to the brain for interpretation as hearing
Semicircular Canals Three bony, fluid-filled loops located behind the vestibule Helps maintain balance
Three main parts of the ear External, middle, and inner
Outer ear is also called Aurricle
Medical name for ear wax Cerumen
Audiometry Process of measuring how well an individual hears various frequencies of sound waves
Tuning fork test (Rinne test) Examination that compares bone conduction and air conduction loss
Tuning fork test (Weber test) Examination used to determine hearing loss in one ear compared to the other
Otoscopy Use of an otoscope to view and examine the tympanic membrane and various parts of the outer ear
Hearing Aids Devices that amplify sound to provide precise perception and interpretation of words
Myringotomy with tubes Surgical procedure with the insertion of a small ventilation tube into the inferior segment of the tympanic membrane
Myringotomy with tubes is also known as Tympanotomy
Myringolasty Surgical repair of the tympanic membrane with a tissue graft after a spontaneous rupture that results in hearing loss
Another name for Myringoplasty Tympanoplasty
Audiometer Instrument used to measure hearing acuity
Ear Irrigation Routine procedure used to remove excess earwax, or cerumen, and foreign materials from the ear.
Common solutions for ear irrigation Water and Saline
Ear irrigation solutions should be warmed to 99-100 degrees for comfort
Irrigation should not be performed if the patient is experiencing A ruptured tympanic membrane, pain, lightheadedness or dizziness
Reasons for instillation of ear drops Include infection, relieve pain, soften ear wax
Myotic Constricts the pupils
Mydriatic Dilates the pupils
Cholesteatoma Slow-growing cystic mass made up of epithelial cell debris found in the middle ear; Occurs as a congenital defect or as a result of chronic otitis media; Although rarely urgent, surgical treatment is the only choice
Deafness, Conductive Hearing loss caused by the breakdown of the transmission of sound waves through the middle and/or external ear
Deafness, Sensorineural Hearing loss caused by the inability of nerve stimuli delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage in the auditory nerve or cochlea
Mastoiditis Inflammation of mastoid process; Usually an acute expansion of an infection in the middle ear (otitis media)
Impacted Cerumen Excessive accumulation of wax like secretions from the glands of the external ear canal
Labyrinthitis Infection or inflammation of the labyrinth or the inner ear (specifically, the three semicircular canals in the inner ear, which are fluid-filled chambers and control balance)
Otitis Externa (OE) (Swimmer’s Ear) Inflammation of the outer or external ear canal Result of growth of bacteria or fungi in the external ear Major symptom is pain, especially when the ear is tugged on, along with a red swollen ear canal
Otitis Media, Acute AOM; Middle ear infection; Predominantly affects infants, toddlers, and preschoolers
Serous Otitis Media SOM; Collection of clear fluid in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or be due to an obstruction of the eustachian tube
Otosclerosis Condition in which the footplate of the stapes becomes immobile and secured to the oval window; Inherited disorder that causes hearing loss due to the ear's inability to amplify sound.
Created by: MsKim6399