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Ch.14 Special Senses

The Eye

Eye acts Much like a camera
Sclera White portion of the eye; tough, fibrous membrane that surrounds the eyeball, except at the front of the eye
The Sclera maintains The shape of the eyeball; Helps to hold the shape of the eye
The Sclera serves as a Protective covering for the eye
The Iris is the Colored portion of the eye; Eye color is created by the amount & type of pigment in the Iris
Circular muscle that surrounds the pupil Iris
Multiple genes inherited From each parent determine a person’s eye color
The Pupil Controls the amount of light entering the eye BY TWO SETS OF MUSCLES IN THE IRIS
Opening in the center of the iris Pupil
Radial muscles cause pupil To DILATE in dim light
Circular muscles cause pupil To CONSTRICT in bright light
Conjunctiva Thin mucous membrane layer that lines the anterior part of the eye and inner part of the eyelids
Cornea Transparent, nonvascular layer covering the colored part of the eye
The Function of the Cornea is To BEND LIGHT RAYS
The Lacrimal Gland Produces tears
Tears drain through this duct Lacrimal Duct
The Lacrimal Gland is located At the upper outer edge of each eye
The Lacrimal Duct is located At the inner edge of eye
The Retina A layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and that trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is formed
Nerve Cells of the Retina are Rods and Cones
Rods Responsible for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
Cones Responsible for visualizing colors, central vision, and vision in bright light
Choroid The pigmented vascular layer of the eyeball
The Choroid lies Just beneath the sclera
The Choroid is also called the Choroid Coat
The Choroid contains Extensive capillaries that provide blood supply and nutrients to the eye
Lens Colorless biconvex structure that aids in focusing images clearly on the retina
The Lens function To bend light rays
The Lens Separates the interior eye into 2 cavities; Anterior Chamber & Posterior Chamber
Ciliary Body The part of the eye that connects the iris to the choroid
The Ciliary Body contains Muscles responsible for adjusting the lens to view near objects
The Ciliary Body allows for Focusing
The Anterior Chamber of the eye Located in front of lens
Aqueous Humor Clear, watery fluid which nourishes the cornea and maintains proper pressure within the eye
The Anterior Chamber of the Eye is filled with Aqueous Humor
The Posterior Chamber of the eye Located behind the Lens
Vitreous Humor A clear, jelly-like substance that gives shape to the eyeball
The Posterior Chamber of the Eye is filled with Vitreous Humor & Aqueous Humor
Aqueous Humor flows back and forth between the Anterior & Posterior Eye Chambers
The Posterior Cavity of the Eye is Posterior to the Lens
The Posterior Cavity of the Eye is filled with Vitreous Humor
Blindness can occur Blindness can occurIf Vitreous Humor escapes the eye
Aqueous humor and vitreous humor aid in Refraction as light travels through the chambers to the retina
Eyelids function To protect and shade
Eyelids Keep the surface of the eyeball lubricated and protected from dust and debris through blinking motion
Eyelashes Help protect the eyeball by preventing foreign materials and/or insects from coming in contact with the surface of the eyeball
Suspensory ligaments Hold the lens in place
Suspensory ligaments assist In adjusting the shape of the lens for proper focusing of the eye
Macula lutea Provides central vision
The Macula lutea is an Oval, yellowish spot near center of retina
Fovea centralis Where visual sharpness is at its highest
The Fovea centralis is a Small depression located within macula lutea
Optic Nerve Receives impulses from retina and transmits them to the brain
Optic Disc The raised disc on the retina at the point of entry of the optic nerve, lacking visual receptors and so creating a blind spot
Refraction Process of bending of light rays as they pass through the various structures of the eye so that they focus and produce a clear image on the retina
Process of Vision Transmitted through the cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, and vitreous humor to the retina; Sensitive nerve cells of the retina transmit the image through the optic nerve to the brain; Brain interprets the image as vision
Errors of Refraction occur When the eyeball is abnormally shaped or when the lens has lost the ability to accommodate to near vision
Myopia Ability to only see things close up; Nearsightedness
Hyperopia Ability to only see things far away; farsightedness
Astigmatism Abnormal curvature of the cornea causing blurry vision
Presbyopia Farsightedness due to the aging process
The Four levels of Refraction are Myopia, Hyperopia, Presbyopia, Astigmatism
Instrument used to examine the eyes Ophthalmoscope
Medical doctor that specializes in treating eye disorders Ophthalmologist
Licensed to perform visual acuity tests and prescribe corrective lenses Optometrist
Only able to fill prescriptions for glasses and contacts Optician
Snellen Test Used to test visual acuity; standard eye test
Tumbling E chart or Landolt C chart Eye chart used to test children or pt with language barrier
How many feet away do you place the patient age 6 or older away from the Snellen chart 20 feet
How many feet away from the Snellen Chart do you place children 5 and under 10 feet
Tonometer Instrument used to check for glaucoma
Created by: MsKim6399