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Kinesiology Ch. 1-6

QuestionAnswer
Superficial Relates to depth
Ipsilateral Same side
Contralateral Opposite side
Bilateral Both sides
Arthrokimatics Movement of joint surface
Osteokinematics Movement of bones around a joint axis
Linear motion Straight line from one location to another
Rectilinear motion Straight line Ex: Child sliding down a hill
Curvilinear motion Movement in a path that is not quite straight or circular Ex: diving from a diving board
Angular motion Movement around a fixed point. Same direction, angle, time, but not distance
Angular motion example? Joints in our bodies
Sagittal plane has what axis? Frontal
Frontal plane has what axis? Sagittal
Inverse plane has what axis? Vertical axis
Sagittal plane has what joint motions? Flexion/Extension
Frontal plane has what joint motions? Abduction/Adduction Inverse/Eversion Ulnar/Radial Deviation
Inverse plane has what joint motions? Supination/Pronation Horizontal Abduction/Adduction External/Internal Rotation
Axis skeleton Head, ribs, spine
Appendicular skeleton Limbs, Shoulders, ect.
Ribs have how many pairs? 12
True ribs how many? Connect to what? 1-7/ connect to the sternum
False ribs how many? Connect to what? 8-10/ connect to each other
Floating ribs how many? Connect to what? 11-12/ Don't connect to anything
Upper extremities? How many bones? 64. Scapula, clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
Upper extremities? How many bones? 62. Hip (ilium, ischium, and pubis), femur, tibia, and fibula
Where does growth happens> Epiphysis plate
Top end of bone? Epiphysis
Bone shaft Diaphysis
Between epiphysis and diaphysis? Metaphysis
Humerus type of bone? Long bone
Fibula type of bone? Long bone
Phalanges type of bone? Long bone
Metatarsals type of bone? Long bone
Carpals type of bone? Short bone
Tarsals type of bone? Short bone
Ribs type of bone? Flat bone
Sternum type of bone? Flat bone
Ilium type of bone? Flat bone
Scapula type of bone? Flat bone
Entire spine type of bone? Irregular bone
Pubis type of bone? Irregular bone
Sacrum type of bone? Irregular bone
Maxilla type of bone? Irregular bone
Patella type of bone? Sesamoid bone
Loss of normal bone density and mass, weakens bone so it's easier to break? Osteoporosis
Infection in the bone? Osteomyelitis
Hole through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments to pass? Foramen
Hollow or depression? Fossa
Ditch-like groove containing a tendon of blood vessel? Groove
Fibrous joints have what type of movement? High stability, low mobility (little to no movement)
Type of fibrous joints? Synarthrosis/ suture joints
Synarthrosis have what type of movement? No motion ex: skull
Cartilaginous joint have what type of movement? More mobility, less stability ex: vertebral joints
Cartilaginous joints are also called what? Amphiarthrodial joints
Synovial joints are also called what? Diarthrodial joints
True or false? Synovial joints have a membrane? True
True or false? Synovial membranes secrete synovial fluids? True
Synovial joints/Diarthrodial joints have what type of motion? Free motion, allowing greater ROM
Saddle joint have how many axis? Nonaxial joint = no degrees of freedom (linear of gliding movement only)
Hinge joint have how many axis? (1) Uniaxial=2 motions
Pivot joint have how many axis? (1) Uniaxial=2 motions
Ellipsoid joint have how many axis? (2) Biaxial=4motions
Saddle joint have how many axis? (2) Biaxial=4motions
Ball and Socket joint have how many axis? (3) Active motion in all planes
Saddle joint example? Thumb CMC
Pivot joint example? Radius/Ulna
Hinge joint example? Elbow/knee
Ellipsoid joint example? Wrist/MCP
Ball and Socket joint example? Hip/ Shoulder
Ligament connects to what? Bone to bone
Tendon connects to what? Tendon to bone
Synovial fluid reduces what? Friction and help joints move freely
Bursa reduces what? Friction between moving body parts (padlike sacs to provide cushion)
Sprain refers to? Ligaments: partial or complete tearing of fibers
Strain refers to? Tendons: overstretching of a muscle
Complete separation of bone? Dislocation
Partial dislocation of bone? Subluxation
What is Tendosynovitis? Inflammation of tendon sheath
What is Synovial? Inflammation of synovial membrane
What is End feel? Quality of feel when slight pressure is applied at the end of joints (PROM)
What is Hard End Feel? Hard and abrupt (bony end feel) Ex: Elbow extension
What is Firm End Feel? Soft tissue stretch Ex: Shoulder Internal/External Rotation, Knee extension
What is Soft End Feel? Soft tissue/muscles bulk Ex: Elbow flexion
Movement in the synovial joint that is independent and CANNOT be reproduced by voluntary muscle contraction? Joint Play
Passive movement that is usually applied to an injured area of the body? Joint Mobilization
Done under anesthesia, very painful and uses a lot of force Joint Manipulation
Cocave has what directions within bones? Same direction. Bones move in the same direction as the body's segment
Convex has what directions within bones? Opposite direction. Bones move in the opposite direction of the body's segment's motion
Vertebral Column (26): Cervical ­ 7
Vertebral Column (26): Thoracic 12
Vertebral Column (26): Lumbar 5
Vertebral Column (26): Sacrum 5 (fused)
Vertebral Column (26): Coccyx 5 (fused)
Atlas is located where? Atlas is C1
Axis is located where? Axis is C2
Sternum landmarks? 1. Manubrium 2. Sternal body 3. Xiphoid process
Axial Head, spine, and ribs
Appendicular Limbs, Shoulder, etc.
Closed/Simple Fracture Fracture of bone, without breaking the skin
Open/Compound An injury in which a broken bone breaks the skin, causing a risk if infection
Osteoporosis definition? Loss of normal bone density and mass. Weakens the bone so it is easier to break.
Osteomyelitis definition? Infection in the bone
Normal resting length of muscle? When not Stimulated
Irritability of muscle? Ability to respond to stimulus
Contractility of muscle? Shorten or contract w/ adequate stimulus (active)
Extensibility of muscle? Stretch or lengthen w/ force (passive)
Elasticity of muscle? Ability to return to normal length
Tension Force built up w/n a muscle
Tone Slight tension in muscle at all times (even at rest)
Excursion Distance from Max Elongation to Max shortening
Active Insufficiency When muscle CANNOT shorten/contract anymore
Passive Insufficiency When muscle CANNOT stretch anymore
Tenodesis ■ Active wrist flexion = passive finger extension ■ Active wrist extension = passive finger flexion
Isometric Muscle contraction NO JOINT MOVEMENTS
Isotonic Joint movement – angle changes ● Concentric – shortening contraction ● Eccentric – lengthening contraction
Concentric shortening contraction
Eccentric lengthening contraction
Agonist/Prime Mover Muscle that causes motion
Antagonist Located on opposite side of joint from Agonist
Cocontraction Agonist and Antagonist contract at the same time
Stabilizer A muscle that contracts w/ no significant movement to maintain a posture or fixate a joint (your back when you do a push up)
Neutralizer Contracts to prevent unwanted motion (allows muscle to perform more than one action)
Synergist Assist the Agonist in providing a desired muscle action
Traction Joint pulled apart
Compression/Approximation Joint surface pushed together
Shear One bone goes up, one goes down
Rotary Twisting motion
Brachial Plexus C5 to T1
5 Nerves of Brachial Plexus 1. Musculocutaneous 2. Axillary 3. Radial 4. Median 5. Ulnar
Wrist Drop Radial Nerve Damage
Ape Hand Median Nerve Damage
Pope’s Blessing Median Nerve Damage
Claw Hand Ulnar Nerve Damage
Force couple Scapula ­ 3 different muscles pulling in 3 different directions to make a turning motion
1st Class Lever Axis is between force and resistance ex: head and neck, seesaw
2nd Class Lever ­ Force at the end, resistance in the middle and the axis at the other end ex: push up or wheelbarrow
3rd Class Lever Resistance on the end, force in the middle and axis on another end ex: arm flexion
Shoulder Girdle Scapula, Clavicle, and Sternum
Shoulder Joint Scapula & Humerus
Shoulder Complex Scapula, Clavicle, Sternum, Humerus, Rib Cage
Glenoid Labrum Increases the Surface Area of the Glenoid Fossa
5 muscles in the shoulder girdle? 1. Trapezius 2. Levator Scapulae 3. Rhomboids 4. Serratus Anterior 5. Pectoralis Minor
Shoulder Tilt When you hyperextend your shoulder and you scapula pop up out of your back a little (done by pectoralis minor)
Scapulohumeral Rhythm (1) Relationship with the shoulder girdle and shoulder joint (2) 2:1 Ratio (3) First 30 Degrees of Shoulder Joint Motion is Pure Shoulder Joint Motion
Shoulder girdle only does what move? Upward Rotation, Downward Rotation, Protraction, and Retraction
Extensors have what nerve? Radial nerve
Anatomical Snuffbox Muscle 1.Abductor Pollicis Longus 2. Extensor Pollicis Brevis 3. Extensor Pollicis Longus
Colles’ Fracture Radial fracture from an outstretched hand
Carpal Tunnel Compression of the median nerve (numbness, tingling, pain and weakness
Functional Hand Position Wrist is slightly extended, MCP and PIP flexed, thumb in opposition
Created by: Genevadarcius