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Ch.13- Endocrine

The Endocrine System consists of Ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Endocrinology is the study of The diseases and disorder of the Endocrine System
The Pituitary Gland is A pea-sized gland; often referred to as the "Master Gland"
A Hormone is A chemical that affects the function of specific organs within the body
Hormones can act within Seconds, a few hours, weeks, or years
The Pituitary Gland secretes Hormones that control the functions of other glands
The Pituitary Gland is also known as Hypophysis
The Pituitary Gland has Two distinct lobes with specific functions
The Pituitary Gland influences Growth, Metabolism, & Regeneration
The Anterior Pituitary Gland is known as Adenohypophysis
The Posterior Pituitary Gland is known as Neurohypophysis
The Adenohypophysis secretes Growth Hormone (GH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Lactogenic Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, and Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
Growth Hormone is also called Somatotropic Hormone (STH)
Growth Hormone regulates Growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone stimulates Normal growth and development of adrenal cortex and secretion of corticosteroids
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone promotes and maintains Normal growth and development of the Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone stimulates Secretion of the thyroid hormones
Lactogenic Hormone is also known as Prolactin
The Lactogenic Hormone promotes Development of breasts during pregnancy
The Lactogenic Hormone stimulates Secretion of milk from breasts after delivery of baby
The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates Secretion of Estrogen and production of eggs in ovaries and production of sperm in the male testes
The Luteinizing Hormone (LH) stimulates Female ovulation and the secretion of testosterone in the male
The Mealnocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) controls Intensity of pigmentation in pigmented cells of the skin
The Neurohypophysis secretes Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin (OT)
The Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is also known as Vasopressin
The Antidiuretic Hormone decreases Excretion of large amounts of urine
The Antidiuretic Hormone increases Reabsorption of water by renal tubules; maintaining body's water balance
Oxytocin stimulates Contraction of uterus during childbirth and release of milk from breast of lactating women
Pineal Gland is a Tiny, pine-cone-shaped gland
The Pineal Gland is located The dorsal aspect of the midbrain region
The Pineal Gland supports The body's biological clock by regulating patterns of eating, sleeping, and reproduction
The Pineal Gland secretes Melatonin
Melatonin induces Sleep
The Thyroid Gland is located Front of the Neck just below the Larynx, on either side of the Trachea
The Thyroid Gland consists of A Right & Left Lobe
The Thyroid Gland secretes Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Calcitonin
Triiodothyronine regulates Growth and development of the body
Triiodothyronine controls Metabolism and body temperature
Thyroxine maintains Normal body metabolism
Calcitonin regulates The level of Calcium in the blood
The Parathyroid Glands are Four tiny rounded bodies, located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland
The Parathyroid Glands secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
The Parathyroid Hormone is also known as Parathormone
The Parathyroid Hormone regulates Level of Calcium in blood
The Thymus Gland is Single gland
The Thymus Gland is large In fetus and infants, shrinks with age
The Thymus Gland secretes Thymosin and Thymopoietin
Thymosin & Thymopoietin Hormones Stimulate the production of T cells that are involved in the Immune response
Adrenal Glands are also called Suprarenal Glands
The Adrenal Glands are two small glands, one positioned atop each kidney
The Adrenal Glands consists of Adrenal Cortex (outer portion) and Adrenal Medulla (inner portion)
The Adrenal Cortex secretes Mineralocorticoids, Gonadocorticoids, and Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids regulate How mineral salts are processed in the body
Mineral Salts are also called Electrolytes
Gonadocorticoids secrete Sex hormones in small amounts
Gonadocorticoids contribute to Secondary sex characteristics in males and females
Glucocorticoids influence Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body
Glucocorticoids are necessary For Maintiaining normal blood pressure
Glucocorticoids have an Anti-inflammatory effect on the body
Glucocorticoids increase Glucose to be available during "fight-or-flight" responses by body
The Adrenal Medulla secretes Catecholamines
Epinephrine equals Adrenaline
The three Catecholamines are Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
Catecholamines are more often measured With a urine test than with a blood test
Epinephrine increases Increases heart rate and force of heart muscle contraction
Epinephrine raises Blood glucose levels by causing liver to convert glycogen into glucose
Epinephrine decreases Peristalsis in intestines
Epinephrine dilates Bronchioles in lungs
Norepinephrine equals Noradrenaline
Norepinephrine produces A vasoconstrictor effect on the blood vessels, thereby raising blood pressure
Pancreas is located LUQ of the Abdomen; behind the stomach
Islets of langerhans secrete Glucagon
Glucagon increases Blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen into glucose when blood sugar is extremely low
Insulin allows Glucose to pass from blood through cell membranes to be used for energy Promotes conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use Lowers blood glucose levels
Insulin promotes Conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use
Insulin lowers Blood glucose levels
Female sex glands equal Female gonads
Female sex glands are a pair of Almond shaped glands
The female sex glands are located In upper pelvic cavity, on either side of lateral wall of uterus Near fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes
Female Sex Glands are responsible For producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals during ovulation
Estrogen promotes Vascularization of uterine lining each month to prepare for implantation of a fertilized egg
The Ovaries secrete Estrogen & Progesterone
Estrogen promotes Maturation of ovum in the ovary
Estrogen contributes to Secondary sex characteristic changes in female with onset of puberty
Progesterone is primarily responsible for Changes within uterus in anticipation of a fertilized ovum
Progesterone is responsible for the development of Maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum
Testes are also Male Gonads and Testicles
The Testes are Two small ovoid glands located in scrotum Primary organs of male reproductive system
Testes are responsible for Production of sperm and secretion of androgens (male steroid hormones)
Testes secrete Testosterone
Testosterone is responsible for Secondary sex characteristic changes that occur in male with onset of puberty
Testosterone is responsible for the Maturation of sperm
Acromegaly Chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities, due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone after puberty
Diabetes Insipidus Deficiency in secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by posterior pituitary gland; Characterized by large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body
Dwarfism Generalized growth retardation of body due to deficiency of human growth hormone
Dwarfism is also known as Congenital hypopituitarism or hypopituitarism
Gigantism Proportional overgrowth of body’s tissue due to hypersecretion of human growth hormone before puberty; accelerated abnormal growth chiefly in long bones
Hypopituitarism Complex syndrome resulting from absence or deficiency of pituitary hormone(s)
Thyroid Gland Cancer Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland. Leads to dysfunction of the gland and inadequate or excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
Goiter, simple, non-toxic Hyperplasia of thyroid gland; Results from deficient amount of iodine in diet, required for synthesis of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones produced by thyroid gland
Graves' Disease Hypertrophy of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone;n causes extremely high body metabolism
Graves' Disease is also called Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism Condition in which there is a shortage of thyroid hormone causing an extremely low body metabolism due to a reduced usage of oxygen
Hashimoto's (Thyroid Disease) Chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland
Thyrotoxicosis (Thyroid Storm Acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
Hyperparathyroidism (Hypercalcemia) Overactivity of any one of the parathyroid glands; leads to high levels of calcium in the blood and low levels of calcium in the bones
Hypoparathyroidism Decreased production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia; Characterized by nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany
Addison's Disease Life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
Conn’s Disease (Primary Aldosteronism) Condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone
Cushing's Syndrome Cluster of symptoms occur as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in blood
Pheochromocytoma Vascular tumor of adrenal medulla causing production of extra epinephrine and norepinephrine; Leads to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations
Virilism Development of male secondary sex characteristics in the female due to the excessive secretion of adrenocortical androgens from the adrenal cortex
Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of the pancreas in which beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin or to use insulin appropriately
Type 1 Diabetes Formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Usually occurs before age of 30; Sudden onset; Controlled with insulin injections; Individuals are prone to developing diabetic ketoacidosis
Type 2 Diabetes Usually appears in adults after age of 30; Majority of these individuals are obese; usually controlled through diet and exercise; Individuals not as likely to develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) early in the disease
Diabetic Retinopathy Disorder of blood vessels of retina in which capillaries of the retina undergo localized areas of bulging (microaneurysms), hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring
Gestational Diabetes Disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy
Pancreatic Cancer Life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas
STH Somatotropic Hormone
LH Luteinizing Hormone
FSH Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
MSH Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone
PTH Parathyroid Hormone
GH Growth Hormone
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Created by: MsKim6399