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Digestive System

Chapter 12- Digestive

TermDefinition
Known as Gastrointestinal Tract, Digestive Tract, Alimentary Canal
Functions of the Digestive System INGESTION of food, SECRETION of fluids and digestive enzymes, MIXING AND MOVEMENT of food and wastes through the body, DIGESTION of food into smaller pieces, ABSORPTION of nutrients, EXCRETION of wastes
Oral Cavity (LIPS, CHEEKS, HARD & SOFT PALATE, UVULA, TONGUE, TEETH)
Palate Separates nasal cavity from oral cavity
Hard Palate Front part of the top of the mouth
Rugae Forms a partition between the nasal passages and mouth
Tongue Pushes food into Pharynx; Principle organ of TASTE
Uvula Closes off nasopharynx to prevent food from entering nasal cavity
Teeth: Chops food into smaller pieces
Mastication Chewing
Swallowing Deglutition
Salivary Glands PAROTIDS, SUBMANDIBULARS, SUBLINGUALS
Salivary Glands secrete Saliva
Saliva is Mostly water but contains 2 types of Digestive Enzymes
2 Digestive Enzymes in Saliva AMYLASE & LIPASE
Amylase AIDS IN DIGESTIONS OF CARBS
Lipase AIDS IN DIGESTION OF FATS
Salivary Glands mositen Food to make a bolus; which starts Digestion
PHARYNX Throat
The Pharynx Serves as the passageway for both the respiratory & digestive systems
Oropharynx Section leading away from oral cavity
Nasopharynx Behind Nasal Cavity
Laryngopharynx Lower portion- opens into the Esophagus and Larynx
EPIGLOTTIS Flap of tissue behind tongue; Seals off the windpipe so no food is accidentally inhaled
ESOPHAGUS Connects the Pharynx to the Stomach
Esophagus Receives food from the Pharynx and propels it to the Stomach
CARDIAC SPHINCTER Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Cardiac Sphincter Controls passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach
When the Cardiac Sphincter relaxes Food enters stomach
When the Cardiac Sphincter contracts Prevents stomach contents from re-entering Esophagus
The Cardiac Sphincter Closes off the end of the Esophagus to trap food in the stomach
STOMACH Storage Tank for Food
The Stomach is approx 12 in. long x 6in wide
Gastric Juices break down food in stomach
Gastric Juices allows the body time to digest large meals
The Muscular action of stomach causes churning of food; mixes food with secretions
CHYME Liquid like mixture of partially digested food and digestive secretions
Fundus Upper rounded part of Stomach
Body Central middle part of Stomach
Pylorus Lower tubular area (gastric antrum) of Stomach
Pyloric Sphincter Regulates passage of food from stomach to Duodenum
Rugae Folds in mucous membranes of Stomach
Rugae allows For expansion of the Stomach after consumption of food and liquids
SMALL INTESTINE aka SMALL BOWEL
The Small Intestine in length is Approx. 20 ft. long
The Small Intestine is Coiled like a hose; full of ridges and folds to maximize the digestion of food and the absorption of Nutrients
The Small Intestine is divided into 3 parts
DUODENUM 1ST Segment of the small intestine; starts the process of enzymatic breakdown of food- mixes with bile & digestive juices
JEJUNUM Absorbs most of the nutrients present in food
ILEUM Absorbs Vitamin B12, bile salts, & whatever else the Jejunum did not absorb
VILLI Finger like projections; increases the surface area of the Intestine to allow for RAPID absorption
By the time food leaves the small intestine Around 90% of all Nutrients have been extracted from it
LARGE INTESTINE Absorbs water from indigestible food & takes away useless waste
CECUM First portion of the Large Intestine; Appendix hangs from lower portion
ASCENDING COLON Left side
HEPATIC FLEXURE Bend between the Ascending & Transverse Colon
TRANSVERSE COLON Across Top
SPLENIC FLEXURE Bend between the Transverse & Descending Colon
DESCENDING COLON Stores the remains of digested food that will be emptied into the Rectum
SIGMOID COLON Stores fecal wastes until ready to leave body
RECTUM Temporary storehouse for Feces
ANUS Where Feces is expelled
The Liver Weighs about 3 pounds
The Liver is the 2ND Largest Organ
The Liver has One Major Digestive Function; the production of Bile for emulsification (break down) of fats in small intestine
Additional functions of Liver Excretion of bile pigments into Bile; synthesis of Vitamin K dependent plasma proteins: Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, & Fat Metabolism
The Liver also goes through Phagocytosis which is Ingestion of Bacteria
The Liver removes toxic substances through Detoxification
Gallbladder A Pear shaped sac, under the Liver
The Main Function of the Gall Bladder To Store & concentrate bile produced by Liver; so that it can be re-used for the Digestion of subsequent meals
The Gall Bladder Releases Bile in response to presence of fatty content of food present in Duodenum
The Gall Bladder Emulsifies Fat; turns into Liquid
The Pancreas is Located In ULQ of abdomen; behind the stomach
The Pancreas Secretes Digestive Enzymes into the Small Intestine to complete the Chemical Digestion of Food
The Pancreas Functions Has an Endocrine & Exocrine Function
Exocrine Gland manufactures DIGESTIVE JUICES
TRYPSIN Breaks down Proteins
PANCREATIC LIPASE Breaks down Fats
PANCREATIC AMYLASE Breaks down Carbohydrates
SODIUM BICARBONATE Neutralizes Acidic Stomach Contents
Endocrine Gland also manufactures INSULIN & GLUCAGON
INSULIN Hormone that makes it possible for glucose to Pass from blood through cell membranes to be used for Energy
GLUCAGON Hormone that stimulates Liver to convert Glycogen into Glucose when needed
Primary Teeth Deciduous Teeth; Set of 20
Secondary Teeth Permanent Teeth; Set of 32
Incisors Chisel; sharp edges; for Biting food
Canine/Cuspid Grasping and Tearing food
Bicuspids Premolars & Molars; multiple projections for Crushing and Grinding food
Crown Visible part of tooth; covered with enamel; hardest substance in body
Root Embedded in bony socket of jaw bone
Root Canal Pulp Cavity (Central Core of Tooth)
Achlorhydria Epigastric pain, mild diarrhea, sensitivity to spicy food
Created by: MsKim6399