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Diet & Nutrition


Nutrition Process by which organisms take in and utilize food materials
69% of Adults in the U.S. are overweight and 349% are obese
32% of Children in the U.S. are overweight and 17% classified as obese
Inappropriate food choices and eating habits may contribute to Type II Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Colon Cancer
Gastroenterologist Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines
Registered Dieticians All registered dietitians are nutritionists
Not all Nutritionists are Registered Dietitians
Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist A trained nutrition professional who has met the strict educational and experiental standards set forth by the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND)
Dietetic Technician Individual who is educated and trained in the technical levels of nutrition and dietetic practice for the delivery of safe quality food and nutrition services
Nutritionist An individual who advises others on matters of food and nutrition and their impacts on human health
Nutrient Substance, usually from foods, necessary for normal functioning of the body and good health
Six Nutrients necessary for cellular function Water, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats (lipids), Vitamins, and Minerals
Water is Contained in all body tissues, transports substances throughout the body, involved in all biochemical reactions, lubricant for joints and digestive tract.
65% of total body weight is Water
Water helps control body temperature through Evaporation of Sweat
Proteins Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids
Proteins are Required for structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs
Proteins are important in Growth and repair of all tissues
Proteins regulate Rate of chemical reactions
When glucose is unavailable Protein is a source of energy
Carbohydrates Main source of energy for the body when converted to glucose
When carbohydrates are consumed in excess They are converted into fat and stored in adipose tissues
Fats (Lipids) Primary stored source of energy for the body and component in all cell membranes
Vitamins Organic substances in foods essential in minute quantities for normal growth and maintenance of good health
Minerals Chemicals contained in foods necessary for normal growth and tissue maintenance
Fiber Essential for normal functioning of GI system
Fiber A type of carbohydrate that the body can't digest. Though most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and instead it passes through the body undigested.
Fiber helps Regulate the body's use of sugars, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar in check.
Fiber is found in Whole grains, vegetables, and fruits
Electrolytes Minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They are in your blood, urine, tissues, and other body fluids. Electrolytes are important because they help balance the amount of water in your body.
Electrolytes Mineral salts dissolved in water that carry electrical current
Metabolism All processes involved in body's use of nutrients
During Metabolism all energy contained in foods is Released
Metabolism is measured by Amount of Heat that is generated
Infants grow Rapidly
Nutrient most essential for rapid growth in Infants is Protein which is necessary for building body tissues
Healthy Infants double their birth weight in 3 months and triples it by their first birthday
In Childhood a child will gain an average of 2-3 inches in Height and 5-6 pounds per year
Adolescence Period of intense growth when energy and nutrient needs increase dramatically
Adults need to eat well-balanced meals that are rich in Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains, Poultry, Fish, and low-fat Milk products
Seniors need a balanced nutritional intake with Sufficient protein at each mean
Net carbohydrates are calculated by Subtracting fiber grams from total carbohydrates grams
Balanced combination of foods provides All nutrients necessary for a diet to be considered “healthy”
ChooseMyPlate” from Department of Agriculture details Details latest nutritional guidelines to use in planning a healthy diet
Weight Loss Cutting calories modestly to avoid fasting state; “safe” rate of weight loss 1 to 2 pounds per week
To make good food choices A patient must be able to Read and understand food labels
MA may be responsible for Providing general information about good food choices with brochures, educational handouts, etc., Teaching patients how to use “ChooseMyPlate” website, Obtaining preauthorization from insurance company to see a dietician, Sending records to insurance comp
As people become more sedentary There is increase in weight gain
Adults should attempt to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate activity each day
Weight loss may require 60 to 90 minutes of moderate activity on most days
Guidelines for Physical Activity include Cardiovascular conditioning, stretching before and after exercise, Incorporating resistance exercises.
Bariatrics Branch of medicine concerned with prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
Obesity Having too much body fat for height, gender, and age of the individual
BMI equal to or greater than 95th percentile Severely Overweight
Health Effects of Obesity may include Diabetes, Heart disease, Cancer, Osteoarthritis, Decreased life expectancy, Metabolic syndrome, Insulin resistance
Glycemic Index Measures how quickly carbohydrate foods raise blood glucose level
Surgical procedures for reducing the size of the stomach Gastric band, Resection of stomach, Resection/rerouting small intestine into small pouch (bypass surgery)
Special Diets Necessity due to food intolerances, weight gains, or medical conditions
Characteristics of an Eating Disorder include Radical changes in eating patterns or eating behaviors
Anorexia Nervosa Drastic reduction of food intake in effort to minimize body weight ; Individual perceives any weight gain negatively Primarily seen in adolescents, but can occur in adulthood Medical and psychological support essential in treatment of this disorder
Bulimia Nervosa Dangerous pattern of eating or binging followed by purging Purge may be by vomiting, using laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills, or excessive exercise; Any method to rid the body of excess food intake may be attempted
CFompulsive Overeating Excessive binge eating when huge amounts of foods are consumed; Attempt to relieve stress or depression, but causes them to increase
Night Eating Syndrome Patients awakened by hunger throughout the night; Binging occurs during late hours, causing the person to not be hungry in morning hours
Foodborne diseases are caused by Bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can contaminate foods
Created by: MsKim6399