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Chapter 15

Phylogenies and Classifying Diversity

taxonomy the science of classifying organisms based on the features they share
taxonomist a scientists who classifies an assigns scientific names to organisms
protozoan a protist that ingests food and usually lives in water
algae a protist that makes its own food and usually lives in water
euglena a protist that makes its own food
amoeba a protozoan that moves by pushing our parts of its cell
dysentery a disease of the intestines
pseudopod a part of some one-celled organisms that sticks out like a foot and moves the cell along
slime mold a protist that lives as an individual cell, then joins other similar cells to form a community that produces spores
spore a reproductive cell of some organisms
mold a fungus that grows quickly on a surface
hyphae threadlike fibers containing membranes and cytoplasm
mycelium the underground feeding network of a fungus
lichen An organism that is made up of a fungus, a green alga and a cynobacterium
cynobacterium a blue-green algae
seed a plant part that contains a beginning plant and stored food
fern a seedless vascular plant
moss a nonvascular plant that has simple parts
gymnosperm a nonflowering seed plant
angiosperm a flowering seed plant
vascular plant a plant that has tubelike cells
vascular tissue a group of plant cells that form tubes through which food and water move
xylem the vascular tissue in plants that carries water and minerals from roots to stems and leaves
phloem the vascular tissue in plants that carries food from leaves to other parts of the plant
mycorrhiza a close relationship in which a fungus and the roots of a plant live together and help each other
nonvascular plant a plant that does not have tubelike cells
rhizoid a rootlike thread of a moss plant
alternation of generations a life cycle of mosses, algae, and some protists that alternates between a haploid phase and a diploid phase
sporophyte in alterations of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores
gametophyte In alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produced gametes
frond a large, feathery leaf of a fern
sori the clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a frond
fossil fuel the fuel formed millions of years ago from the remains of plants and animals
conifer a cone-bearing gymnosperm
stamen the male organ of reproduction in a flower, which includes the anther and filament
pistil the female organ of reproduction in a flower
stigma the upper part of the pistil on the tip of the style
nectar a sweet liquid that many flowers produce
pollination the process by which pollen is transferred from the stamen to the pistil
germinate to start to grow into a new plant
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
multicellular made up of many cells
blastula a hollow ball of cells formed by cell divisions of a zygote
phylogeny the origin and evolution of a species
cnidarian a group of invertebrates, including jellyfish, corals and hydras
radial symmetry an arrangement of body parts that resembles the spokes on a wheel
tentacle an armlike body part of cnidarians that is used to capture food
flatworm a simple worm that is flat and thin
bilateral symmetry a body made of left and right halves that are the same
roundworm a worm with a smooth, round body and pointed ends
segmented worm a worm whose body is divided into sections
mollusk an invertebrate that has three body parts
radula a tongue like organ covered with teeth that is used for feeding
arthopod a member of the largest group of invertebrates; this group includes insects
crustacean a class of arthropods that includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and pill bugs
arachnid a class of arthropods that includes spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks
exoskeleton an external skeleton
molting the process by which an arthropod sheds its exoskeleton
metamorphosis a major change in form that occurs as some animals develop into adults
complete metamorphosis the changes in form during development in which earlier stages do not look like the adult
incomplete metamorphosis the change in form during development in which earlier stages look like the adult
endoskeleton an internal skeleton
tube foot a small structure used by echinoderms for attachment and movement
chordate an animal that, in its embryo stage, has a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal slits, and a tail that goes past the anus
cartilage a soft material found in vertebrate skeletons
vertebra one of the bones or blocks of cartilage that make up the backbone
dorsal the back part of an animal
notochord a rod found in the back of a chordate embryo
pharyngeal slit an opening in the wall of the pharynx of a chordate embryo
myxini a class of fish with a cartilage skeleton and no jaws or scales; hagfish
cephalaspidomorphi a class of fish with a cartilage skeleton and no jaws or scales; lamprey
chomdrichthyes a class of fish with a flexible skeleton made of cartilage
gill a structure used by some animals to breathe in water
osteichthyes a class of bony fish with jaws and scales
operculus a protective flap over gills that allows a fish to breathe without swimming
swim bladder a gas-filled organ that allows a bony fish to move up and down in water
larva the immature form of an animal that looks different from the adult form
amniotic egg the egg of a vertebrate that lives on land
cold-blooded having a body temperature that changes with the temperature of the surroundings
ectotherm an animal whose main source of body heat is its environment
warm-blooded having a body temperature that stays the same
endotherm an animal that created its own body heat through metabolism
marsupial a mammal with a pouch
Created by: mrspuffisphat21



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