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exam 5


The CDC identifies someone as having AIDS when their CD4+T-lymphocytes count is ________, or a CD4=T-lymphocyte percentage is ___________ below 200/mm under 14
the highest HIV diagnosis rate was among those aged 25–34 years
HIV-1 sub types Asia, Europe, Western Hemisphere
HIV-2 West Africa
early S/S HIV -Fatigue -Headache -Fever -Lymphadenopathy -Diarrhea -Sore throat
How do we test for HIV -Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) -If Positive, Repeat Test -If Again Positive, Western Blot Test -If All Positive, HIV-antibody Positive
who should be screened for HIV -CDC recommends routine testing for ages 13-64. -New recommendations for pregnancy testing
other testing when diagnosed with HIV -CBC/ Lymphocyte Count -CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte Count -Viral Load Testing -Genotyping
HIV is not curable….the goal is health promotion and to prevent ____________ _____________ opportunist infections
HIV modes of transmission -Sexual -Parenteral -Perinatal
parenteral transmission -injection drug use -autogous blood transfusions
Laye HIV S/S -Shortness of Breath -Weight Loss -Night Sweats - Persistent Diarrhea -Oral/Vaginal Candidiasis -Dry Skin, Skin Lesions -Peripheral Neuropathy -Shingles -Seizures -Dementia
Final Stage of HIV Infection CD4+T Lymphocyte Count Below 200 or Opportunistic Infections and Diseases CDC Defined
T-4 cells T-4 cells are also called CD4, are “helper” cells. They lead the attack against infections.
T-8 cells T-8 cells (CD8) are “suppressor” cells that help the immune response. CD8 cells can also be “killer” cells that kill cancer cells and cells infected with a virus.
Candida Albicans yeast/thrush like bacteria found in the mouth
Kaposi’s Sarcoma spots on skin
Cytomegalovirus -Related to Herpes virus -Can lead to blindness
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia -Seen as cell levels drop to 200-100 -Leading OI cause of death -Fungal respiratory infection
Under 100 cells -Toxoplasmosis -Cryptosporidiosis -Cryptococcosis
Complications AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) -Memory Impairment -Personality Changes -Hallucinations -Leg Weakness -Loss of Balance -Slow Responses
Therapeutic Intervention Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) -Early, Aggressive Treatment -Multiple-drug Therapy Three Drugs in at Least Two Classes of Treatment Categories -Reduces Viral Load to Undetectable Level -Prolongs Survival
Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors -Inhibits Reverse Transcriptase/Viral Replication- -lamivudine 150mg, AZT (zidovudine) 300mg Combivir (both above combined) -Can take with or without food…watch for peripheral neuropathy
Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors -Block HIV Reverse Transcriptase -Sustiva (efavrenz) 600mg PO daily -Take on empty Stomach at HS -MAY HAVE SEVERE AND LIFE THREATENING RASH -May test false positive for marijuana
Protease Inhibitors -Bind to Active Site of HIV Protease Enzyme -Interrupt Formation of Viral Particles -indinavir 400mg PO on empty stomach -Need to be well hydrated (48oz/24hr) -Big risk for resistance if non compliant
Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors -Block Reverse Transcriptase -Truvada -Sometimes given for those at risk…
Fusion Inhibitors -Block HIV Fusion with CD4+ Cell Membrane -Given as a SQ injection, have to teach patients to administer safely
intergrase inhibitors -isentress 400mg po bid -Diarrhea, nausea, headache. YUCK!
Created by: Danyellerex