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Motor skills

The Learning experience

The Learning experience Deliberate attempt to improve skilled performance
What does learning experience involve? Learners and ;earning practitioners
Learners are who? students, athlete, client/ patient
Learning practitioners are who? teacher/instructor, coach, clinician/therapist
Learning practitioner (LP) Create a high quality learning environment
How do LP create a better environment? Structured setting, use technology/resources, Adapt for individual learners, innovation, facilitate goal-setting
What is a goal? Achievement towards which effort is directed, highly individualiszed
What does a goal do? Help motivate
What does a goal NOT do? Change behavior
How do goals work? by directing attention, energizing effort, enhancing persistance
What is attention directed to? skill- action behavior - helps context - environment
Role of Learning Practitioner -know your learner -communicate -clarify goals & expectations -foster intrinsic motivation
What are the 3 types of goals? outcome goal performance goal process goal
outcome goal focus is on the end result (big picture)
performance goal focus is on improvement based on performance (time & distance)
process goal emphasis is on quality of movements (form, aesthetics, small steps to big picture)
Self-efficacy belief in ability to do something
Near transfer current elements are very similar
Example of near transfer -snowboarding & Skateboarding -throwing from 1st-2nd & throwing from short-home
Far transfer relationship between elements is less direct
Example of far transfer -kicking a ball vs kickboxing class -darts vs archery
Negative transfer previous knowledge/experience interferes with new learning
Example of negative transfer -driving in England then driving here in California -tennis vs badminton
more shared elements & structural similarities between training and activity = ? more transfer
3 elements of a learner -movement -perceptual -conceptual
Movement elements movement patterns (footwork)
Perceptual elements use or interpretation of sensory information
Conceptual elements strategies, rules, concepts (defensive principles, attacking principles)
what is motivation linked to? goal attainment
complex skills lose motivation if not broken down
How do you break down a complex skill? breakdown into smaller goals
why do you breakdown into smaller goals? to get a clear vision and have steady progress
what is success based on? task oriented vs norm-referenced judgment
Motor-abilities they're generally stable traits that predetermine potential for success
2 ability theories -general motor ability -specificity of motor abilities hypothesis
General motor ability -"natural athlete" -highly skilled in one area, highly skilled in all
Specificity of motor abilities hypothesis there are many motor abilities, they all are independent
Why do we care about ability? developing appropriate activities to become better in
Verbal cognitive stage -goal is to understand skill/determine the object -what to do and not to do
Motor stage -Associative stage -focus on "how to do" not "what to do"
Autonomous stage motor skills automatic
What does a learner need to improve past experience, motivation, abilities, and stages of learner
stages of learning verbal cognitive, motor, autonomous
Supplemental learning familiarize learner, establish 2way communication, attention focus, manage arousal
Familiarize learner introduction, orientation, rules/expectations
Establish 2way communication LP needs to tell L what they expect. L responds with questions -who is the L?, individual characteristics, modification
Attentional focus internal focus & external focus Narrow focus & Broad focus
internal focus pays attention to internal cues (stretch til it hurts)
external focus pay attention to environment
narrow focus narrow range of info (1 @ a time)
broad focus wide range of info (all @ once)
Managing arousal steer learner away from anxiety
Created by: rmart11