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AP2/ Exam 3

Chapters 24-26

What are Paneth cells Secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
Why should elderly people decrease their caloric intake The metabolic rate of the elderly declines steadily with age Even eating enough to maintain proper nutrition metabolic rate is so slow Their muscles begin to atrophy and require less energy Muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
What is a major route of heat exchange in your body Radiation, conduction/convection, evaporation Shivering is NOT a major route of heat exchange
krebbs cycle doesn't require O2 depends on by products of respiration to continue -all reactions occur twice for each glucose molecule because 2 pyruvates are formed during glycolysis -2 ATPs
cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate, and then release waste products
glycoloysis the universal pathway glucose is phosphorylated, split in 2, and converted to pyruvic acid 2 ATPs
pyruvic acid central metabolite for many biological processes
Which one of the nutrients that we normally intake has the highest caloric value in terms of energy per gram being produced (ATP) Fats has the highest yield of energy per gram when metabolized
Glycolysis and TCA cycle, which does not occur in mitochondria Glycolysis does NOT occur in mitochondria
What is beta oxidation Occurs in mitochondrion Every second carbon is reduced Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments It is NOT involved in the anabolism of fats
When are proteins used to produce ATP Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
What are oxidation reduction reactions They may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
What is phosphorylation primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work
What is the post absorptive state in digestion Glycogenolysis in the liver Lipolysis in adipose tissue and the liver Catabolism of cellular protein NOT: Absorption of Glucose from GI Tract
What are the sources of complete protein Eggs, Milk, Yogurt, meat and fish
What conditions promote oxidative deamination. (removal of amine) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include excessive amounts of protein in the diet
What is the shiver reflex in relation to hypothalamus When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may shiver
What is glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, a simple sugar that the body uses to produce energy
What is the function of low density lipo proteins (LDL) Regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells Make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis Influence cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells NOT: transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
What is a negative nitrogen balance? What does it indicate? is associated with burns, serious tissue injuries, and fevers. It means that the amount of nitrogen excreted from the body is greater than the amount of nitrogen ingested
What are the 4 layers of digestive system from mouth to anus mucosa submucosa muscularis serosa
What is an essential aspect of the epithelial lining of the stomach (mucosal barrier) barrier in the stomach that resists the back diffusion of hydrogen ions. this barrier is a layer of thick mucus secreted together with alkaline fluid
Anatomy of a tooth has an exposed crown, a constricted neck, and 1 or more roots that anchor it to the jaw
How many teeth is associated with an adult 32 permanent teeth
How many teeth is associated with a child 20 deciduous teeth, means falling off
What is saliva Saliva is composed of 99.5% water and a mixture of solutes. Saliva is formed as water and electrolytes that are filtered from plasma and capillaries then through cells of the salivary glands
Anatomy of the mouth ( lingual frenulum) a membrane that connects the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
What is bile A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is
Which layer (of the 4) contains blood vessels, lymph nodes and is rich in elastic fibers The mucosa layer of the digestive system
What is intrinsic factor- where does it come from and whats the function is required for absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum this production of parietal cells (glycoproteins) is the only essential function performed by the stomach
How are most substances absorbed through the mucosal lining starch digestion begins in the mouth and absorption mostly occurs in the small intestine and to be absorbed, nutrients must pass from the lumen of GI tract into the lining
Which contains villi of small intestinal tract - whats the process ( is it active or passive transport) fingerlike projections of tissue that increases the surface area and contains specialized cells that transport substances into the blood stream. DO NOT aid in the digestion of nutrients but help with nutrient absorption active transport
Cephalic phase of digestion- what does that involve primarily involves the cephalic reflex, which is a nervous system reflex initiated by thought, smell, sight, or taste of food. Nerves from the higher regions of the brain are sent to the hypothalamus then relays nerve signals to ithe medulla oblongata
What is chyme a mixture of partially digested food and gastric juice that is pastelike
What is the enterogastric reflux (associated with chyme) inhibit gastric motility, inhibit gastric secretion, is triggered by chyme entering the duodenum and involved in the enteric nervous system
What is cholecystokinin Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
Is an immune response generated if intact proteins cross the epithelium in small intestinal tract If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
Electrolyte absorption in digestion system Where are iron and calcium absorbed in small intestinal tract Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum
You just ate french fries, buttered toast, ice cream and drank a glass of milk, what gland would be responsible for aiding in digestion of these substances The Pancreas
Where does the alimentary canal develop from? The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from endoderm
Baby admitted to hospital with projectile vomiting after feeding-- highest levels of alkaline concentration in intestinal Acids in stomach-- what is the potential pH of the blood in relation to loss of stomach fluid. How would that affect the blood baby is admitted w/ a hist of projectile vomiting after feeding. Found sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and doesn't open readily bc of baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates alkalosis
alkalosis the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma and having a pH reading of above 7.45
What is secretin Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include secretin
What is splanchnic circulation and what vessels are involved Vessels involved: Hepatic portal vein, superior mesenteric artery, celiac artery Not included: Inferior vena cava
What are the components of saliva 99.5% water plus electrolytes, mucus, wbc, epithelial cells, enzymes, and antimicrobial agents
We have 20 known pathogens in intestinal tract, which immunoglobulin aids in preventing these from going beyond the mucosa and entering peritoneal cavity IgA
How is electrolyte reabsorption affected in the kidneys and what part of the neuphron is associated with it? Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated
How do kidneys regulate potassium concentration potassium excretion is influenced by aldosterone
Most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is…. potassium
Does solute size affect their movement across compartment flares Yes, because extracellular solution can change the volume of a cell by affecting osmosis
Where are thirst centers located in the brain hypothalamus
What is the phosphate buffering system found in intracellular fluid and is effective in buffering metabolic acid produced by cells composed of both a weak acid and weak base
Is the bicarbonate buffer system the most important blood buffer system? Yes, because Bicarbonate ion and carbonic acid are the key components of this buffering system
The most plentiful sources of buffers are associated with the buffer protein buffer system (true of false) True
Would there be damage to the respiratory system result in acid base imbalance? Yes you can produce respiratory acidosis or alkalosis due to problems with the lungs
Is the regulation of acid based systems in the body accomplished mainly through respiratory and urinary system False, mainly through respiratory system and a small role in the kidneys
Prolonged hyperventilation will lead to loss of consciousness
Is thirst a reliable indicator of the need for water False
How does alkalosis affect the CNS slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide and cause cause strokes or Rett syndrome-rare genetic mutation affecting brain development in girls
how does acidosis affect the CNS it depresses the CNS and happens in respiratory acidosis and can cause seizures
What is the macula densa? is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule thickening where the distal tubule touches the glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule allows reabsorption of most substances. Which substance is not reabsorbed by proximal convoluted tube creatine
Does the fluid in glomerular capsule of nephron contain high concentrations of plasma proteins False
Why does alcohol act as diuretic this happens because alcohol suppresses release of ADH, the hormone that allows your kidneys to return water to your bloodstream and makes you urinate more frequently
What is the function of angiotensin 2 raises bp by a number of actions, most important ones being vasoconstriction, sympathetic nervous stimulation, and increased aldosterone biosynthesis and renal actions
What is diabetus insipidus disease in which the secretion of or response to the pituitary hormone vasopressin is impaired, resulting in the production of very large quantities of dilute urine, with dehydration and insatiable thirst
In relationship to solutes in urine…normal specific gravity in urine commonly used in evaluation of kidney function if results fall between 1.002 and 1.030 your kidneys are functioning normally if results are above 1.010 can indicate mild dehydration
Sequence of formation of drop of urine start with nephron and ending with urethra Urine formed by nephrons drains-->lg papillary ducts, extends to renal papillae of pyramids pap duct-->minor calyx--> delivers to a major calyx-->lg cavity/renal pelis-->ureter-->urinary bladdar
How is net filtration increased or decreased in the kidneys Glomerular filtration is the first step in making urine NFR would inc if glomerular capillary bp is inc and net filtration will dec if glomerular filtration dec NFR = glomerular bp – (osmotic pressure + hydrostatic pressure) Osm pressure opposes filt
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus important structure in regulating filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure
What is tubular reabsorption mean is the process by which the nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returns them to the circulating blood
What is tubular secretion is the transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubular lumen
Describe kidney function in a patient 70 years or older decreases due to kidney atrophy
Why are some substances incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron They are not absorbed because they are extremely complex molecules
If tubular reabsorption rate for particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml concentration in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, will you see it in urine or will it remain in the body The amino acid will appear in the urine
If someone tells you the clearance value of glucose is 0, what does that mean Normally all glucose is reabsorbed
If a person excretes dilute urine, what is that an indication of Excretion of dilute urine requires
What does impermeable mean not allowing fluid to pass through
If collecting tubules in kidneys are impermeable to water, what would be the appearance of urine Excretion or dilute urine requires impermeability of the collecting tubules to water
Counter current mechanism associated w ascending and descending loop of… Involves the interaction between the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels
ADH is responsible for facultative water reabsorption True
What are the 2 most important hormones regulators of electrolyte reabsorption angiotensin II and aldosterone
Mucosa layer of digestive tract is the innermost layer of the digestive tract that contains simple columnar epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae
Submucosa layer of digestive tract underneath the mucosa and contains arteries, veins, and the submucosal nerve plexus
Muscularis layer of digestive tract is located underneath the submucosa and contains the oblique layer, circular layer, and the longitudinal layer
Serosa layer of the digestive tract the outermost layer that lines the digestive system
Where does saliva come from in terms of exocrine glands Parotid gland submandibular gland sublingual gland
Parotid gland largest salivary gland located anterior and inferior to ears produces only serous secretions
submandibular gland located inferior to the floor of the oral cavity produces both mucus and serous secretions
sublingual gland smallest salivary gland located inferior to the tongue produces both mucus and serous secretions
ankyloglossia short lingual frenulum can distort speech due to restricted tongue movement
What are the characteristics of the large intestinal tract wide tube that is shorter than the small intestine and its much wider absorbs water and electrolytes from the remaining digested material that enters into it from the small intestine 6.5 cm in diameter and approx 1.5 m in length
What are the characteristics of the small intestinal tract long tube that is inferior to the stomach and medially within the abdominal cavity coiled, thin walled tube about 1 inch in diameter and approx 6 meters long consists of 3 segments, duodenum, jejunum, ileum
duodenum forms the first segment of the small intestine originates at the pyloric sphincter and arched into a C-shape
jejunum middle region of the small intestine and makes up about 2/5ths of the small intestine's length primary region for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption intraperitoneal
ileum the last region of the small intestine and forms about 3/5ths of the small intestines. absorption of digested materials intraperitoneal
3 major parts of the large intestines cecum- blind sac colon-forms an inverted u shaped arch rectum-retroperitoneal structure that extends from the sigmoid colon
Glomerulus Site of filtrate formation
loop of henle The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle? a. a podoctye b. a vasa recta c. a fenestrated capillary d. an efferent arteriole a vasa recta
An increase in the permeablility of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) increase in the production of ADH
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ____. is drained by an efferent arteriole.
The descending limb of the loop of henle ___. contains fluid that become more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla.
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ___. nephron
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ___. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)? a. the stretching of the bladder wall b. motor neurons c. the pressure of the fluid in the bladder d. the sympathetic efferents the stretching of the bladder wall
The fluid in the golmerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of _____. plasma protein
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to it's elimination from the body. 1. major calyx 2. minor calyx 3. nephron 4. urethra 5. ureter 6. collecting duct Nephron, Collecting Duct, Minor Calyx, Major Calyx, Ureter, Urethra
Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption? a. ADH b. thyroxine c. aldosterone d. atrial natriuretic peptide ADH
Play a role in urine concentration. A)Peritubular capillaries B)Afferent arterioles C)Efferent arterioles D)Vasa recta E)Glomerular capillaries Glomerular capillaries
True or False: If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine. False
True or False: The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron. True
True or False: Both the male and female urethras serve the urinary and the reproductive systems. False
True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process. False
True or False: The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH. False
True or False: The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle. True
True or False: Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate. True
True or False: Urea is reabsorbed in the nephron loop. False
True or False: An excessive urine output is called anuria. False
True or False: Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption. True
True or False: Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient. True
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle? A)a vasa recta B)an efferent arteriole C)a podocyte D)a fenestrated capillary a vasa recta
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________. A)countertransport B)secondary active transport C)passive transport D)facilitated diffusion secondary active transport
The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium. False
Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of the body. True
Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. True
It is impossible to overhydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions. False
To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output. True
Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma proteins and causes tissue edema. False
Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces, and urine. True
Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume. True
When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot occur beyond the collecting tube. True
The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin. False
Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate. True
Regulation of the acid-base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control, and the kidneys also play a small role. False
Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient. True
taste receptors on the tongue allow tasting sweet,salty,sour, and bitter sensation True
most of digestion and absorption takes place in the stomach False
the epiglottis prevents food from entering the esophagus when its swallowed False
the rectum is a storage area for the indigestible True
the gallbladder produces bile and stores it until its needed in the small intestines False
ascites is an accumulation of fluid in he abdominal peritoneal True
two symptoms of an ulcer are hematemesis (vomit blood) and melena (blood poop) True
Stimulation of the parasympathetic fibers to the GI tract decreases peristalsis and intestinal secretions False
The tongue is a mass of smooth muscles covered by a mucous epithelial membrane. False
the submandibular glands contain only serous secretory cells False
There are three layers of the muscularis in the stomach wall and only two layers of the muscularis in the intestinal wall. True
Absorbed fat from the lumen of the small intestine enters the central lacteals to be transported through the thoracic duct of the lymphatic system. True
The villi compose the brush border within the small intestine False
A defecation sensation that may occur after eating a meal is an expression of the gastrocolic reflex True
Relaxation of the internal anal sphincter in the defecation reflex permits movement of feces into the anal canal True
The principal function of the gallbladder is to detoxify bile before it is released into the duodenum. False
By the sixth week of development the liver is producing red blood cells; at the ninth week the liver represents 10% of the total weight of the fetus. True
All but a portion of the head of the pancreas is positioned retroperitoneally. True
The liver and pancreas are considered mixed glands because they have both endocrine and exocrine functions. False
Created by: vtlove116



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