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Chapter 13

Evolution and Natural Selection

population a group of organisms of the same species that line in the same area
biological evolution the change in the gene pool of a population over time
gene pool the genes found within a population
acquired trait a trait that comes from an organism's behavior
descent with modification the theory that more recent species of organisms are changes descendants of earlier species
natural selection the process by which organisms best suited to the environment survive, reproduce, and pass their genes to the next generation
common descent a theory that present organisms descend from past organisms
adapt to change genetically over generations to become more suited to the environment
modern synthesis a theory that states evolution involves changes in a population's gene pool over time
sedimentary rock the rock formed from pieces of other rock and organic matter that have been pressed and cemented together
fossil record the history of life on the earth, based on fossils that have been discovered
biogeography the study of the geographical distribution of fossils and living organisms
anatomy the structure of an organism
comparative anatomy the study of anatomy of different species
homologous structure the body parts that are similar in related animals
molecular biology the study of the biochemical and molecular processes within cells
geologic time all the time that has passed since the earth formed
paleontologist a scientist who studies fossils
radioactive element an element that decays to form another element
geologic time scale a table that divides the earth's history into time periods
invertebrate an animal that does not have a backbone
vertebrate an animal that has a backbone
amphibian a vertebrate that lives at first in water and then on land
reptile an egg-laying vertebrate that breathes with lungs
plate techtonics a theory that the earth's surface is made of large sections of crust that move
continental drift a theory that the major landmasses of the earth move
magma hot, liquid rock inside the earth
plate a large section of the earth's crust that moves
crust the outer layer of the earth
recombination the creation of new combinations of alleles in offspring
gene flow the movement of genes into or out of a population
genetic drift the random changes in the gene pool of a small population
endangered a condition in which there are almost no organism of a certain species
extinction the death of all members of a species
habitat the place where an organism lives
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium the principle that states the frequencies of alleles in a population do not change unless evolutionary factors act on the population
fossil the remains or impressions of an organism that lived in the past
Created by: mrspuffisphat21