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Ch. 9 Fresh Air

Veterinary Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Respiratory system system that brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood to the cells
Respiration diffusion of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere and the cells of the body
Ventilation the intake of fresh air
Upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, and larynx (link to the outside and are lined with mucous membranes that may or may not have cilia)
Lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea, Lungs (bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli)
Nas/o, Rhin/o meaning "nose"
Snout the nose of swine, given a different name because of it's rigidity and overall difference to other noses
Nostrils (Nares) paired external openings of the respiratory tract
Endotherms warm blooded animals
Nasal turbinates (conchae) scroll-like cartilages covered with highly vascular mucous membranes. They warm, humidify, and filter the air
Meatus dorsal and ventral Nasal turbinates that separate the nasal cavity into passages. passages are named by location
Meat/o meaning "opening or passageway"
Nasogastric tube tube that passes through the nose down to the stomach. places through the ventral nasal meatus
Cer/o meaning "horn"
Vestibule the rostral part of the nostrils and the nasal cavity
Sept/o meaning "partition" (the nose is divided by a wall of cartilage called a septum)
Mucous membrane specialized epithelial tissue that lines the respiratory system.
Mucus slime like substance that is composed of glandular secretions, salts, cells, and leukocytes, secretion of the mucous membranes. helps moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters the nose
Cilia thin hairs located inside the nostril that filter air to remove debris
Olfactory receptors responsible for sense of smell, nerve endings located in the mucus membranes of the nasal cavity
Olfact/o meaning "smell"
Tonsils lymphatic tissue that protects the nasal cavity and proximal throat
Tonsill/o meaning "tonsils"
Sinus an air filled or fluid filled space in bone that have mucus membrane linings. they provide mucus, make bone lighter, and help produce sound
Sinus/o meaning "sinus"
Pharynx commonly called the throat. the common passageway for the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. it extends from the caudal part of the nasal passages and mouth to the larynx and connects the nasal passages to the larynx and mouth.
Pharynx/o meaning "throat"
Larynx part fo the respiratory tract located between the pharynx and trachea. commonly called the voice box.
Voice box common name for the larynx
Vocal cords paired membranous bands in the larynx that help produce sound
Laryng/o meaning "voice box" or "larynx"
Glottis where the vocal apparatus is found, it is the space between the vocal cords. Air passing through the glottis causes vibration of the vocal cords that produce sound
Glott/o meaning "glottis"
Syrinx vocal apparatus of avian species which is located between the trachea and bronchi
Trachea commonly called the windpipe. extends from the neck to the chest. it attaches to the larynx in the neck and passes into the thorax through thr thoracic inlet
Thorax chest cavity that houses the lungs and heart
Thoracic inlet also known as the superior thoracic aperture, refers to the opening at the top of the thoracic cavity.
Trache/o meaning "windpipe" or "trachea
Tracheal Bifurcation at the distal end of the trachea where is divides to two branches (Bronchi)
Bronchi the branches from the trachea that lead to the lungs
Bronch/o, (Bronchus) meaning " bronchi" (plural form)
Bronchial tree the Bronchus divide into branches, over and over dividing into smaller branches that look similar to a tree.
Principal or Primary Bronchus (left and right) the main bronchi that divides off of the Trachea
Secondary (Lobar) bronchi the bronchi that divide into smaller branches from the primary
Tertiary or Segmental bronchi (Bronchioles or Bronchiolus) the bronch that divides into smaller branches from the secondary
-ole meaning "small"
bronchiol/o meaning "bronchiole
Alveoli air sacs in which most of the gas exchange occurs
Alveolus (Latin for small hollow thing) a grape like cluster at the end of each bronchiole. connected via the alveolar duct
Alveol/o meaning "small sac"
Surfactant a liquid in the alveoli that reduces alveolar surface tension, and prevents collapse of the alveoli during expiration.
Cost/o meaning "ribs"
Intercostal pertaining to the area between the ribs
Thorac/o, -thorax meaning "chest cavity" or "chest"
Lung the main organ of respiration, composed of lobes (left and right)
Lobes well defined portion of an organ and is used in describing areas in the lung, liver, and other organs.
Lob/o meaning "well defined portion"
Pneum/o, Pneumon/o, Pneu meaning "lung" or "air"
Pulm/o, Pulmon/o meaning "lung"
Parenchyma the functional elements of an organ
Stroma the framework of an organ
Lung Parenchyma the functional elements of the lung
Mediastinum the region between the lungs that houses the heart, aorta, lymph nodes, esophagus, trachea, part of the bronchial tubes, nerves, thoracic duct and thymus.
Pleura membranous sac that encased each lung
Pleur/o (Pleurae) meaning "membrane around the lung" (plural form)
Parietal Pleura the outer layer of the membrane lining the inner wall of the thoracic cavity
Visceral Pleura the inner layer of the membrane lining the outside of the lung
Pleural space the potential space between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura, contains pleural fluid which prevents friction when the membranes rub together during respiration, while providing an adhesive force, keeping the lung in contact with the chest wall.
Diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic and peritoneal cavities
Dia- meaning "across"
phragm/o meaning 'wall"
Diaphragmat/o, Phren/o meaning "diaphragm"
Diaphragmatic Hernia abnormal displacement of organs through the muscle separating the chest and abdomen
Inhalation the drawing in of breath
Exhalation, Expiration the release of breath
Spirare (latin) meaning to breathe
Spir/o, -pnea meaning "breath" or "breathing"
Apnea absence of breathing
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Bradypnea abnormally slow respiratory rates
Tachypnea abnormally rapid respiratory rates
Hyperpnea abnormal increase in the rate and depth of respirations
Hyperventilation abnormally rapid deep breathing, which results in decreased levels of cellular carbon dioxide
Agonal breathing respirations near death or during extreme suffering
Ox/i, Ox/o, Ox/y refer to Oxygen (O2)
Capn/o refers to Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Phren/o (2nd reference) can also refer to the mind.
Hypoxia refers to inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue despite an adequate blood supply
Hypercapnia refers to excessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypocapnia a decrease in the carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Respiratory Acidosis excessive amount of carbon dioxide in the blood due to decreased ventilation that lowers the pH of the blood
Respiratory Alkalosis low carbon dioxide levels do to increased ventilation that raises the pH of the blood
Metabolic Acidosis or Alkaliosis changes in blood pH that are caused by a metabolic factor (vomiting, renal disease)
Tidal volume amount of air exchanged during normal respiration (air inhaled and exhaled in one breath)
Inspiratory reserve volume or complemental air amount of air inspired over the tidal volume (extra amount that could be inhaled after normal inspiration)
Expiratory reserve volume or supplemental air amount of air expired over the tidal volume (extra amount that could be exhaled after normal expiration)
Residual volume air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration (amount of air trapped in the alveoli)
Dead space air in the pathway of the respiratory system (termed "dead" because this air is not currently participating in gas exchange)
Minimal volume amount of air left in alveoli after the lung collapses
Vital capacity largest amount of air that can be moved in the lung (tidal volume + inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes)
Arterial Blood Gas laboratory test in which pressured levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are measured in arterial blood, abbr. ABG
Auscultation act of listening, respiratory tract is auscultated with a Stethoscope, respiratory rhythm, rate, and sound are evaluated upon auscultation
Adventitious sounds pathologic respiratory sounds to listen for during auscultation
Bubbling sound of popping bubbles that suggest fluid accumulation
Crepitation (rales, or crackles) fine or coarse noises coming from collapsed or fluid filled alveoli during inspiration
Decreased lung sounds less or no sound of air movement, suggesting consolidation of lung tissue
Consolidation a condition in which lung tissue becomes firm and solid rather than elastic and air-filled because it has accumulated fluids and tissue debris
Respiratory rate (RR) number of respirations per minute; one inspiration, and one expiration
Rhonchi (wheezing) abnormal, continuous, musical, high-pitched whistling sounds heard during inspirations
Stridor snoring, squeaking, or whistling that suggests airway narrowing
Vesicular sounds sound resulting from air passing through small bronchi and alveoli
Bronchoalveolar lavage collection of fluid or mucus from a bronchi and/or alveoli via an endoscope of through an endotracheal tube inserted as far down the trachea caudally as possible before infusing fluid and aspiring a sample. fluid may be used for cytologic sample
Bronchoscopy exam of the bronchus, may be used to examine the bronchi for disease of foreign objects.
Bronchoscope an instrument used to visually examine the bronchus
Laryngoscopy visual exam fo the voice box. used to examine the larynx for disease, tissue repair, or foreign object.
Laryngoscope an instrument used to visually examine the voice box
Percussion diagnostic procedure used to determine density in which sound is produced by taping various body surfaces with a finger or an instrument. the sound that is produced over the chest where the air is present differs from that of an area where fluid is
Phlegm thick mucus secreted by the respiratory lining.
Sputum mucus secreted from the lower respiratory tract, can be used for cytologic exam
Radiography image of internalized structures created by exposure of a sensitized film to x-rays
Spirometer instrument used to measure air taken in and out of the lungs, measures volume and capacity.
Sputum culture procedure in which mucus from the lower respiratory tract is collected and placed in predetermined media (nutrient source) to allow microbes to reproduce.
Thoracocentesis (Thoracentesis) puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity, may be used for cytologic and microbiologic exam. could also be performed to drain pleural effusions or to re-expand a collapsed lung
Tracheal wash collection of fluid or mucus from the trachea via an endotracheal tube to assess respiratory disease, may be used for cytologic or microbiologic exam
Transtracheal wash sterile collection of fluid or mucus from the trachea via a catheter inserted through the skin into the trachea to assess respiratory disease, abbr. TTW. may be used in cytologic or microbiologic exam
Trephination insertion of a hole-boring instrument (trephine) into a sinus to establish fluid drainage or to allow access to the roots of the teeth
Anoxia absence of oxygen (almost complete lack of oxygen)
Asphyxiation (Suffocation) interruption of breathing resulting in lack of oxygen
Aspiration inhalation of a foreign substance into the upper respiratory tract
Asthma chronic allergy disorder
Atelectasis incomplete expansion of the alveoli; also may mean collapse of a lung
Bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi, may be a sequela of inflammation or obstruction
Sequela a condition following as a consequence of disease
Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
Acute Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi that occurs over a short time and has sudden onset
Chronic Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi that that occurs of a long period of time and has a longer onset.
Bronchopneumonia abnormal condition of the bronchi and lung
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease abbr. COPD. general term for abnormal conditions in equine species in which expiratory flow is slowed, commonly called heaves. they may have a heavy line, or increased abdominal musculature associated with increased expiratory effort.
Cyanosis abnormal condition of blue discoloration, caused by inadequate oxygen levels
Diaphragmatic hernia abnormal opening in the diaphragm that allows part of the abdominal organs to migrate into the chest cavity
Emphysema chronic lung disease caused by enlargement of the alveoli of changes in the alveolar wall
Epistaxis nosebleed
Equine Laryngeal Hemiplegia disorder of horses that is characterized by abnormal inspiratory noise during exercise associated with degeneration of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and atrophy of the laryngeal muscles; also called left laryngeal hemiplegia, or roaring
-plegia meaning "paralysis"
Hemoptysis spitting of blood from the lower respiratory tract
Hemothorax accumulation of blood in the chest cavity
Inflammation localized protective response to destroy, dilute, or wall off injury; classic signs are heat, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function
Laryngitis inflammation of the voice box
laryngoplegia paralysis of the voice box
Laryngospasm sudden fluttering or closure of the voice box
Pharyngitis inflammation of the throat
Phonation act of producing sound
Aphonation is the inability to produce sound
Pleural Effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Effusion fluid escaping from blood or lymphatic vessels into tissues or spaces
Pleurisy (Pleuritis) inflammation of the pleura
Pleuropneumonia abnormal condition of the pleura and the lung, usually involves inflammation and congestion
Pneumonia abnormal condition of the lung that usually involves inflammation and congestion of the lung
Congestion the abnormal accumulation of fluid
Interstitial pertains to the area between the cells
Interstitial pneumonia abnormal lung condition with increased fluid between the alveoli and a decrease in lung function
pneumothorax abnormal accumulation of air or gas in the chest cavity
Polyp growth or mass protruding from a mucous membrane (usually benign)
Pulmonary Edema accumulation of fluid in the lung tissue
Edema abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces.
Pulmonary Fibrosus abnormal formation of fibers in the alveolar walls
Pyothorax accumulation of pus in the chest cavity
Pus a fluid product of inflammation composed of leukocytes, exudate, and cell debris
Exudate high protein fluid
Rhinitis inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes. describe discharge by appearence
Mucopurulent containing mucus and pus
Rhinopneumonitis inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes and lungs
Rhinorrhea nasal discharge
Sinusitis inflammation of a sinus
Snuffles Common term for upper respiratory disease of rabbits caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida
Stenotic Nares narrowed nostrils that reduce airway flow
Tracheitis inflammation of the windpipe
Tracheobronchitis inflammation of the trachea and bronchi
Upper respiratory infection invasion of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, or larynx (or trachea) by pathogenic organisms; abbr. URI Signs: cough, nasal and ocular discharge, dyspnea, respiratory noise
Cough a sudden noisy expulsion of air from the lungs
Paroxysmal Cough spasm-like and sudden cough
Tuss/i meaning "cough"
Bronchoconstrictors substances that narrow the openings into the lung
Bronchodilators substances which enlarge the openings into the lungs
Mucolytics substances to break down mucus
Antitussives substances used to prevent coughing
Chest tube placement a chest tube is a hollow device inserted into the thoracic cavity to remove fluid or gas. passed when animals are severely dyspneic because of pressure on the lungs
Endotracheal intubation passage of a tube through the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx into the windpipe . provides a patent airway for administration of anesthetics or for critical care
patent meaning: open, unobstructed, not closed
Laryngectomy surgical removal of the voice box
Laryngoplasty surgical repair of the voice box
Lobectomy surgical removal of a lobe
Pharyngoplasty surgical repair of the throat
Pharyngostomy surgical creation of an opening into the throat
Stoma an opening on a body surface that may occur naturally or may be created surgically.
Pharyngotomy surgical incision into the throat
Pleurectomy surgical removal of all or part of the pleura
Pneumonectomy surgical removal of lung tissue
Sinusotomy surgical incision into a sinus
Thoracotomy surgical incision into the chest wall
Tracheoplasty Surgical repair of the windpipe
Tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening into the windpipe (usually involves insertion and placement of a tube)
Tracheotomy Surgical incision into the windpipe
ABG arterial blood gas
CO carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
ET endotracheal
O2 oxygen
PEEP positive end expiratory pressure
RR respiration rate
TTA transtracheal aspiration
TTW transtracheal wash
URI upper respiratory infection
Created by: dmweaver