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Chapter 2

matter anything that takes up space and has mass (made up of elements)
element cannot be broken down to into other substances by chemical reactions
compound consists of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
atom smallest unit of matter
atomic number number of protons
mass number protons + neutrons
istopes same element with different number of neutrons
electron shells where electrons are found; energy increases further away from nucleus...energy is absorbed when electrons go away and energy is lost when electrons go towards to nucleus
molecule two more of the same atoms held together by covalent bonds
valence (bonding capacity) number of electrons needed to complete the valance shell
ionic bond attraction between an anion and a cation
types of strong bonds covalent bonds
types of weak bonds ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der waals interactions
hydrogen bond forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom (usually O or N atoms)
water's emergent properties cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temp. , expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solvent
solvent dissolving agent
solute substance that gets dissolved
gram positive purple
gram negative pink
pH of acids, bases, and neutral acid <7, base >7, neutral 7
dehydration creates a longer polymer
hydrolyses makes a shorter polymer
functional groups hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, methyl
glycogen polysaccharide in animals
peptide bond covalent bond between 2 amino acids
monosaccharides simplest carbs or simple sugars
unsaturated fatty acids double bonds, liquid, plants, vegetables
saturated fatty acids n double bonds, solid, animals, butter
enzymatic proteins function selective acceleration of chemical reactions
defensive proteins function protection against disease
storage proteins function storage of amino acids
transport proteins function transport of substances
hormonal proteins function coordination of an organism's activities
receptor proteins function response of cell to chemical stiumuli
contractile and motor proteins function movement
structural proteins function support
denaturation loss of a protein's native structure
all cells must have... cytoplasm, cell membrane, genetic material
organization of biological systems (smallest to largest) molecule, organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biosphere
monomer lipids -glycerol+fatty acids -protein -amino acid
polymer lipids -triglyceride -protein or polypeptide
monomer carb -monosaccharide -glucose -fructose -galactose
polymer carb -polysaccharide -starch (plant) -glycogen (animal) -cellulose (cell wall) -chitin (insects)
polynucleotide -RNA (1 strand, ribose sugar, AUCG bases) -DNA (2 strands, deoxyribose sugar, AT and CG bases)
Created by: studystack_0325