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pathopyths disease

pathopyths disease lecture 1

what is the scientific term for red blood cells? erythrocytes
what is the scientific term for white blood cells? leukocytes
what is the scientific term for platelets ? thrombocytes
what ratio are cells to plasma in blood? 40% cells 60% plasma
how long do red blood cells live for? 120 days
what are the sites of haematopoiesis in an infant ? how does this differ in a fetus? bone marrow = infant fetus = yolk sac , then the liver and spleen and lastly the bone marrow
what are the sites for haematopoiesis in an adult? Vertebrae, ribs, sternum, skull, sacrum and pelvis, proximal ends of femur
what is haematopoiesis? the process in which different blood cells are formed
why are red blood cells shaped the way they are? to carry more oxygen and provide flexability to get through veins without getting stuck
what term is given to a red blood cells shape? biconcave
why is blood red? The blood cells are red because of the interaction between iron and oxygen from the haemoglobin.
what two chains are found in an adults haemoglobin? two alpha chains and two beta chains
what two chains are found in a fetuses haemoglobin? two gamma and two alpha
if a word ends in poiesis what does this mean? to make
how does the body know if your blood supply is low? if the supply is low the oxygen decreases in the tissue. this causes tissue hypoxia which them stmulates the release of EPO from the kidneys. this goes to the progenitor cells maturing them faster increasing Red blood cells.
what is the hormone called that is release from the kidneys to the bone marrow when oxygen is low? erythropoietin (EPO)
name all 5 white cells. neutrophils , eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes
how many types of lymphocytes are there? 3 : T ,B and natural killer (cytotoxic)
what are the two types of t lymphocyte t helper cells and t cytotoxic cells
where are the lymphocytes made and where do they mature? both T and B are made in the marrow but T mature in the thymus whilst B stay in the marrow
what is meant by "normal" on a reference rage? A property possessed by a majority of the ‘population’ ◦ i.e. more than 50%
name 3 factors that could alter the amount of haemoglobin. production problems :Diet ( not enough Iron, Vit B12, Folate),bone marrow abnormality destruction: sickle cell (cells get stuck and die) blood loss: ulcers , menstruation
what is anaemia? A reduction in the Heamoglobin concentration of the blood
why is it important that multi potent stem cells can self renew? youd run out and then be unable to keep creating blood cells.
what cell type is liniage committed in the haermatopoietic scheme? progenitor cells
what are the two progenitor cells that can come from multipoytent stem cells? common lymphoid and common myeloid
what cells do common lymphoid progenitor cells produce? all 3 lympthocytes : T B and natural killer (cytotoxic)
common myeloid cells produce up to 6 mature functional cells. name 4 at least. RBC platlets monocytes neutrophils eosinophils and basophils
how many molecules of oxygen can a haemoglobin molecule hold? 4 in total 1 for each heam group
how is erthropoiesis stopped ? increased O2 delivery to tissues - removes stimulus for EPO synthesis
what do t helper cells and cytotoxic t cells do? t helper cells:Release substances called cytokines or interleukins that activate other cells cytotoxic cells: kill foreign cells
what is meant by abnormality ? Abnormality is a deviation away from the norm
whats aplastic anemia? problems with the bone marrow causing anaemia
if you are deficient in iron what anaemia is caused ? Microcytic Anaemia.
if you are deficient in B12/folate what anemia is caused ? Macrocytic Anaemia
what are the 4 main systems that prevent blood loss? vasualr system , platleyts , coagulation system and fribrinolytic system
define haemostasis. the process which causing bleeding to stop
what are procoagylents and anticoagulents? pro= encourage clotting anti=prevent clotting
what is thrombopoiesis? the process in which a thrombocyte (platlet) is created.
explain the stages of thrombopoiesis. they are formed in the bone marrow by megakayocytes. these come from CFU cells that undergo endomitosis. this leads to big cells with mmultiple nuclei. the cytoplasm then fragments releasing the newly made thro,bocytes.
what is the hormone that influsences the production of thro,bocytes? thrombopoietin (TPO)
where is TPO produced? primaily by the libver and kidneys at a consistent levle.
if there are low amounts of plat;et in the blood how does this effect TPO production? low platlets means less TPO is absrobed meaning more gets back to the bone marrow which then stimulates he productiuon for more platlests
if there are high amounts of plat;et in the blood how does this effect TPO production? high platlets means miore tpo is absrobed which means less gets habck to the bone marrow. this means lessplatkets are made due to lack of tpo.
what are the names of the ppthwas the coagulatiuon could take intrinsic and extrinsic
what differs the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways ? intrinsic: activated by partial thromboplastin extinic : prothrimbin time and internatial normalised ratio
tissue factor --> X --> Xa --> ____ --> ___ --> firbogen prothrombin --> thrombin
fobrogen --> ___ --> ___ --> stable fibrin clot fibrin monomer --> fribrn polymer
why are scabs red ? RBC gets trapped in fibron mesh caused by platelts to clot the damage
if vasular endothelium is damaged/missinbgf what is exposed ? collogen (subendothelium)
if collogen is exposed what gets activated ? platelets
what is formed when the plates are activated becuase of collogen exposure?? the primary haemostatic plug
when collogen is exposed what happens to the charge? the endothelioum loses its negiavte coating charge menaing the platelts wont be repelled
if the endothelium is intact what is produced? thrombomodulin
when thrombodulin is produced what happens? binds to vasular endohelium
which thrombin does not clot fibronogen? complexed thrombin
what are the 3 stages of clot formation ? clot inition , clot formation and then fibrinoiysis
platlet activ --> T___----> Fibrogen ----> F__----> F____Polymers----> rectraction ------> F___ F____ thrombin , fibrin , fibrin polymers , fibrin fragments
how can haemostasis be disrupted ? quantitative (altered numbers of things e.g RBC) , Qualitative defects (normal numbers but differnt functions)
what sepcific disoreres hinder heamostasis ? platelets , inhibitors or coagulation protein problems
whats the difference between congenital and acquired ? conegnital you're born with ( inherited) , acquire you get over time
when was blood group ABO discovered? 1900
how was blood group ABO discovered ? Landsteiner took blood from 6 of his colleges. let it clot and tested each serum against red cells to see if they reacted. serums that reacted and agglutinated were called A and B those that didn't agglutinate were O.
what is meant by serum? plasma that's clotted
are RBC's studded with antibodies or antigens ? antigens
whats the difference between antigens and antibodies? antigen refers to any sustnce that stimulates the production of antibodies. both are proteins generally.
are antigens different for each blood type? yes each blood type has a different antigen. A has A antigens B has B O has none and AB has AB.
how many blood types are there? 4: A B AB O
what causes ABO blood group antigens? specific sugars that are attached to the red blood cell.
what specific sugar/precursor substance does group O have? L fructose which results in the H antigen
what specific sugar does group A have? it has the H antigen and N-acetylegalactosamine
what specific sugar does group B have? H antigen and D-galactose
what is Landsteiner's laws ? for every group (A) antigen you have the opposite letter antibody.
using Landsteiner's law if I had blood group B what anti agent would I have? anti A (A antibodies)
using Landsteiner's law if I had blood group A what anti agent would I have? anti B (B antibodies)
using Landsteiner's law if I had blood group O what anti agent would I have? Anti A and B (A&B antibodies)
using Landsteiner's law if I had blood group AB what anti agent would I have? none (no antibodies)
what does Ig stand for ? immunoglobulin (serum antibodies)
what immunoglobulin antibodies are naturally occurring , make up 10% of Ig serum and is involved in the primary immune response? IgM
what immunoglobulin antibodies aren't naturally occurring (need a stimulatory event) makes up for 75% of Ig serum and is involved in the secondary response? IgG
what stimulatory event could produce IgG? pregnancy or blood transfusion
what is an agglutaion reaction when a speicifc antigen is mixed with the same antibody ( A with A) the antibodies in the serum cause th antigen to form clumps.
name the 6 possible blood genotypes AA AO AB BB BO OO
name the 4 blood phenotypes A B AB O
is it possible for 2 parents with AO genotypes to have a baby with B or AB blood? no they can only have a baby with AA AO AO or OO
can a Blood group AB baby have parents with the phenotype O? no
how many antigens in the Rh blood group system? 52
what's the most clinically important Rh antigen? RhD (D)
why is RhD important clinically? important in blood transfusions and in haemolytic disease of the foetus and new-born. ( HDFN)
what is HDFN? where there is incompatibility with the Rh group of mum and baby usually mum is negative and has a positive baby. this cause the mums immune system to make antibodies to the babies opposite antigens.
what's a phenotype ? the observable characteristics
whats a genotype? the set of alleles / genes. instead of gene A it could be gene AB or AO.
how would you determine someone blood group? mix someone's RBC's with plasma that has known antibodies. this will show present antigens. then mix the persons plasma with RBC's with known antigens. confirms antibodies.
if the patients blood undergoes aggulation reactions using anti RhD what does this show us. they are RhD +
if you transfer blood group A into a patient with grup B blood what will happen? an immune reaction between the blood which leads to fever , pain haemorrhages and possibly death.
what blood types can group A be transferred to? group A and AB
what blood types can group B be transferred to? group B and AB
what blood types can group AB be transferred to? group AB
what blood types can group O be transferred to? group A , B and AB
will a middle age man have Rh antibodies if he has no previous record of blood transfusions? no Rh antibodies are only present when a person has either had a transfusion or a pregnancy.
can RhD negative blood be given to a RHD positive man? yes as they wont be pregnant but it can lead to sensitisation so medical officers would have to be wary about future transfusions on that person.
name 3 blood groups that cause problems with transfusions. Kell system (anti K) duffy system ( anti Fy) and the kidd syetm (anti Jk)
why do we bother cross matching blood before a transfusion? to ensure that there are no antibodies present in the recipients plasma that would reach with any antigen on the donors cells.
what is the scientific name for the cross matching of blood? serological cross matching
what does the dipstick test measure? proteins , ketones , glucose , blood and ph in urine.
what is significant about measuring alkaline phosphatase? it can be found in bone , kidney or liver. if you read a high measure of it in bodily fluids like urine it could allude to damage to these 3 places.
based puerly on its name what is known about alkaline phospatase? ase= enzyme phospat = acting on a ohspahte group alkaline = works best under alkaline conditions
how would you differentiate the causes of high alkaline phosphate? bones :compare amount of calcum ions to a normal referecne range kidneys look for protein in urine (proteuira) and compare sodium and potassium levles liver:look for jaundice (yellowing of eye lid) check albumin levles and blood in urine (heamaurea)
name 3 diseases that are related with alkalkine phospayaste activity. kidney stones . alchololic cirrosis , oestoprorosis
in your patient LD is there any indication od dietbetes? based on his diet of convenice food and the glucose in his urine it could allude to dietbeties. however no ketones were found in urine so may not be.
in your patient LD is there any inication of renal disease? no indication as no proetin was found in urine.
when cells are disrupted are enzyme levels heighten or lowered? they are heightened
how else can enymes conc be heighten? duct obstruction , blocing gall bladder duct , bile build up , ductal pressure , eveleate enzymes.
what does fibrossis do to cells ? it makes a mesh of fibres that stangle cells
what is a marker of jaundice? billy ruben (Br)
where is Br made? its created when a heam group is broken down. it forms unconjuigated Br which is insoluble in blood.
how does the insoluble Br make its way around the body? the carrier protein albumin
when unconjuicagted Br makes it to the liver what happnes? becomes conjigated and undergoes a chemical attachment becoming blilirubin diglucruronide. it then is mixed with bile and enters the small intestine. undergoes bacterial action.
is conjigated or uncojigated billiruben soluble? unconjigated billiruben is insoluble so conjigated is soluble
after conjigated biliruben undergoes bacterial action what does it become? urobilinogen
when uronilimogen is oxidiesed what is formed poop
where is urobilinogen oxidised? large intestine
where is urobilinogen taken to if it isnt oxidised? kidneys to be excreted or is re enters the liver.
what is cholestasis? the stopping or reduction of bile flow.
what causes cholestasis? disorders in the liver like acute hepatitis , alcoholic liver etc.
when bile flow is blocked where does it go instead? is absorbed into the blood. yellow bile pigments gets deposited into tissues.
what are the causes of cholestasis classed into? intrahepatic and extra hepatic
give an example of an intra(inside)hepatic(liver) diesase. acute hepatocellular disease (acute liver failure)
give an example of an extra(outside)hepatic(liver) diesaese. gallstones, pancreatitis
what are the 3 stages in order of alcholoic liver disease progression? acute , chronic , cirrhosis
what does hepatitis mean ? inflammation of the liver
how many clinically relevant hepatitus diseases are there 3 : A B C
in stage 1 of alcholic liver dieases what can be observed? fat deposits in liver (white blobs) , mitochinral dysfunction
in stage 2 of alcholic liver dieases what can be observed? necrosis , immflamtion , collagen fbres spreading around cells
in stage 3 of alcholic liver dieases what can be observed? fibrosis (fibres strangled cells) , cell death resulting in liver failure
are any of the alcholic liver diease stages reversible? stage 1
from the name diabetes mellitus what can you tell about the disease ? diabetes = syphon mellitus = sweet
how can diebates mellitus be characterized? feeling of thirst and frequent urination
what does MODY stand for ? mature onset diabetes of the young
whats the diffeence between type 1 amnd 2 dieabetes? type 1 are always insulin dpendangt and born with it type 2 become insulin dpendant and can be caused by poor diet.
what does HDFN stand for? Hemolytic disease of the newborn
what is an oncogene ? a gene that promotes tumour growth
whats a tumour suppression gene? anti cancer gene
whats the most commen tissue type that tumours originate? epithelial cells
what does the word neoplasm mean ? neo= new plasm=cell/growth
what is meant by carcogenesis ? cancer causing
whats apoptosis? programmed cell death
what is metastasis ? cancer that has spread from the original place to another body part
whats the difference between benign and malignant? benign doesn't invade surrounding tissue (break basement membrane) whilst malignant does.
what sort of cancer is carcinoma used to refer to ? malignant
whats the scientific term for cell growth / division ? proliferation
whats angiogenesis ? formation of blood vessels
name the 3 hallmarks of cancer you need to know evading apoptosis (not dying) , inswnitivity to anti growth signals (doesnt listen to body keeps growing) and self sufficency in growth signals (keeps saying to grow to itself)
how are hallmarks aquired? genes (oncogenes / faulty tumour supression genes) envirinetmt (carcinogensis)
define an oncgene any mutated gene that contributes to neaoplastic transformatiosn
what are oncogenes known as prior to mutation? proto oncogens
how can proto oncogens be activated into oncogenes? point mutations (making faulty proteins etc) deletion (takes away base pairs in a sequence through loss of a chromosome) gene amplification (excedssive making of onogenes) chromosmal translocation(gene actibvated wrong)
name 4 oncogenes ras , myc , n-myc and erb-BI
whats the function of myc and n-myc ? what type of oncogene are they ? Transcription activator(function) and are both nuclear regulators (type)
whats the function of ras and erb-BI? what type of oncogene are they ? ras - GTP (guarnosine triphosphate) binding (function ) and signal transductor (type) erb-BI--- EGF (epidermal grwoth factor) receptor (function) and growth factor receptor (type)
if oncogens are present what behaviour does the tumour exhibit? gain of functions in tumour
if tumour supressor genes are present what behaviour does the tumour exhibit? loss of functions in tumour
what is the knudson two hit hypothesis? a cell can only initiates tumour when it contains two mutant alleles. having one exhibit caner traits wont causes a tumour both alleles must exhibit the trait.
define an allele the possible form of a gene
define a gene The basic biological unit of heredity
whats sporadic mean ? not hereditary
what was the first tumour suppression gene to be identified? retinoblastoma (Rb)
name 3 tumour suppression genes Rb , TP53 and APC (adenomatous polyposos coli)
what is the three stage model of cancer development (carcingoeniss) initiation - irreversible genetic change of a cancer related gene (onco of TSG) Promotion - expansion of the changed cell (growth) progression - cell gain new abilities like break the basement membrane to invade others (metastasis )
what are the 3 arch types of carconegenic agents ? chemica; , physcial and bioligical
what are the 6 main categpries of carcogenic agent? chemnicals , diet , bio , virus , physical , radiation
what is menat by grade when reffering to tumours?
what is menat by stage when in reference to tumours ?
whats the TNM system?
Created by: ry1