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Chapter 5

Cytology

TermDefinition
cell theory one of the fundamental models of biology that states that cells are the smallest form of life, come from pre-existing cells, are the basic building block of all life forms, and carry out life processes to maintain homeostasis
unicellular organism an organism consisting of only one cell
colony a group of cells that live and work together. Unlike a multi cellular organism, cells in a colony may break away and survive on their own
multi cellular organism an organism consisting or two or more cells and whose cells may not live independently apart from the organism
tissue a group of cells that are specialized to perform a particular function
organ a structure made of two or more tissues that work together to perform a particular function
organ system a group of two or more organs that work together to perform a particular function
organelle structures found within the cytoplasm of cells that perform the various functions cells need to stay alive
eukaryotic describes cells having a true nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles
prokaryotic describes cells lacking a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
cytoplasm The thick fluid inside cells that contains the organelles. Also called the cytosol.
cytoskeleton The structure within cells that helps define their shape, maintains internal organization, and aids in division and movement.
capsule A protective coating found outside the cell walls of many bacteria.
nucleoid The non-membrane-bound region in prokaryotic cells that contains most of the genetic material
flagellum A whip-like cellular organelle similar in structure to a cilium longer and used primarily for movement in many bacteria
chloroplast A cellular organelle found in plant cells that contains the pigment chlorophyll and is the site where photosynthesis takes place
granum A stack of disk shaped thylakoids within a chloroplast
ribosome The cellular organelle that directs the protein building process
rough endoplasmic reticulum Studded with ribosomes: the cellular organelle that consists of a network of membranes used to transport substances throughout a cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum No ribosomes: the cellular organelle that consists of a network of membranes used to transport substances throughout a cell
central vacuole And organelle in plant cells that holds materials and helps maintain the cell's shape through turgor pressure
turgor pressure The pressure exerted by water in a full central vacuole upon the cytoplasm and cell membrane of the plant cell; maintains plant rigidity
leucoplast a non pigmented cellular organelle found in plant cells whose functions include storing starches, lipids, and proteins
cell wall A rigid structure made by cells of plants, fungi, and most bacteria to surround the cell membrane
nucleus The membrane bound region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic material
nucleolus A spherical structure within a eukaryotic cell's nucleus where ribosomes are manufactured
chromatin The genetic material of eukaryotic cells consisting of DNA and associated proteins
lipid bilayer The 2 layers of phospholipids that make up the cell membrane
lysosome A cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Golgi apparatus The cellular organelle that processes and packages proteins in preparation for secreting them from a cell
centrosome A cellular organelle that functions in the organization of microtubules
mitochondrion The cellular organelle in which aerobic respiration takes place to release energy from food
cell membrane A thin layer of phospholipids and proteins that defines the boundary of a cell
cilia A short, hairlike extension of a cell used either for movement or as a sensory organelle
homeostasis the internal balance within the systems of living organisms that must be kept stable in order to maintain life: include getting nutrition, expelling wastes, and responding to the environment
positive feedback a cellular signaling mechanism in which the product of a particular process enhances the process itself
negative feedback a cellular signaling mechanism in which the product of a particular process inhibits the process itself
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is greater than the solute concentration of the cytoplasm in a cell
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is less than the solute concentration of the cytoplasm in a cell
isotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration of the cytoplasm in a cell
passive transport movement of substances across a cell membrane without the need for energy
facilitated diffusion a type of passive transport in which substances can move across a cell membrane through special protein channels embedded in the membrane
active transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration by any means that requires the use of energy
Created by: Wcarlin