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Human Body Systems

Chapter 12

TermDefinition
ingestion the intake of food; the first stage of digestion
reflex an automatic response
pharynx the passageway between the mouth and the esophagus for air and food
peristalsis the movement of digestive organs that pushes food through the digestive tract
gallbladder the digestive organ that stores bile
chyme the liquid food in the digestive tract that is partially digested
villi the tiny, fingerlike structures in the small intestine through which food molecules enter the blood
bile a substance made in the liver that breaks down fats
feces the solid waste material remaining in the large intestine after digestion
rectum the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored
epithelium a thin layer of cells forming a tissue that covers body surfaces and lines some organs
capillary a blood vessel through which oxygen and food molecules pass to body cells
glottis the opening to the windpipe
larynx the voice box
trachea the tube that carries air to the bronci
bronchus a tube that connect the trachea to a lung
bronchiole a tube that branches off the bronchus
alveolus a tiny air sac at the end of each bronchiole that holds air
sleep apnea a condition in which short periods of not breathing occur during sleep
asthma a condition that narrows or blocks the airways and makes breathing difficult
bronchitis an inflammation of the bronchial tubes
cardiac relating to the heart
atrium a heart chamber that receives blood returning to the heart
ventricle a heart chamber that pumps blood out of the heart
artery a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
aorta a large vessel through which the left ventricle sends blood to the body
interstitial fluid a fluid that fills the space around cells and exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood
vein a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart
superior vena cava a large vein that carries blood from the hear, neck and arms to the heart
inferior vena cava a large vein that carries blood from the truck and legs to the heart
connective tissue the supporting framework of the body and its organs
plasma the liquid part of blood
platelet a tiny piece of a cell that helps form clots
fibrinogen a protein in the platelets that forms into threads, creating a clot
thrombus a clot of blood formed within a blood vessel
cardiovascular disease a disease of the heart and blood vessels
antherosclerosis a disease that harms the arteries by narrowing them
hypertension high blood pressure
ureter a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urine liquid waste formed in the kidney
nephron a small tube that is the excretory unit of the kidney
glomerulus a group of capillaries that make up a tiny tube in the nephrons
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) a hormone that controls the absorption of water back into the body
epidermis a thin outer layer of skin
dermis the thick layer of cells below the epidermis
fatty layer the layer of skin that protects organs and keeps in heat
persperation a liquid waste made of heat, water, and salt released through skin
brain stem the part of the brain that controls automatic activities and connects the brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum the part of the brain that controls balance
limbic system the part of the brain that registers feelings
diencephalon the front of the brain
cerebral cortex the part of the brain in which most of the high-level functions take place
thalamus the part of the brain that directs sensory messages
hypothalamus the part of the brain that regulates hormones , the pituitary gland, body temperature , and other activities.
pituitary gland a gland in the brain that produces secretions that regulate basic body functions
dendrite a thin branch of the cell body that receives informataion from other cells
axon a long extension of the nerve cell that carries information to other cells
neuron a nerve cell
synapse a tiny gap between neurons
neurotransmitter a substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
effector cell a muscle or gland cell that carries out the body's responses to stimuli
sensory receptor a specialized neuron that detects sensory stimuli, then converts them to nerve impulses that go to the brain
cornea a clear layer of the eye that light passes through
pupil the black circle in the center of the iris
iris the part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters
retina the back part of the eye where light rays are focused
optic nerve a bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the eye to the brain
eardrum a thin tissue in the middle ear that vibrates when sound waves strike it
cochlea the organ in the eat that sends impulses to the auditory nerve
auditory nerve a bundle of nerves that carry impulses from the ear to the brain
skeletal system the network of bones in the body
red marrow the spongy material in bones that makes blood cells
osteoperosis a disease in which bones become lighter and break easily
ligament a strong tissue that connects bone to bone
tendon a tough tissue that attaches muscles to bones
voluntary muscle a muscle that a person can control
involuntary muscle a muscle that a person cannot control
Created by: mrspuffisphat21