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Microbiology Test 1

Professor Goines TCC SE Fall 2018

What is micro biology? The study of things you can't see with the naked eye
Three other words for microbes are Bugs, germs, agents
5 major groups of microorganisms Bacteria, algae, protozoa, helminthes (parasitic worms) , fungi
Micros are ___ to study in the lab Easy
They are easy to study because they are _____ ________ Easiliy reproducible
Microbes are difficult to study T or F T
What tool do you need to study microbes Microscope
Prokaryote means Pre Nucleus
Eukaryote means True or with a nucleus
Three sections of microbiology Genetics, taxonomy, evolutionary history
Microbes are ____ ubiquitous
Ubiquitous means ______ Everywhere
Bateria have been on the earth for ___________ years 3.5 billion
What is the name of the type of photosynthesis that microbes creates Anoxygenic
What did anoxygenic photosynthesis evolve into Oxygenic Photosythesis
Decomposition Breaking down of an organism once it is dead back into the cycle of life.
Some microbes _______ humans ______ help: clean up
What causes bread to rise Brewers yeast/aka fungi
What kind of cheese can you make from fungi Blue cheese like roqufort or camembert
what did Egyptians use to help with sores? Moldly bread
Why did egyptians use mold bread to heal The bacteria would
What is a pathogen A disease casuing agent. Something that can make someone sick. AN example is E. coli.
The female anopholies mosquito transmits which disease Malaria
Is bacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote Prokaryote
Bacteria has specific ___________ and _____________ Shapes and Arrangments
How many cells to bacteria have They are single celled but some can form arrangements of multiple cells.
List an example of a prokaryotic cell Bacteria
Where is DNA found in the prokaryot? In the nucleoid region
What is the nucleoid region. The space around the middle of a cell that doesn't have a nucleus
Which are smaller, prokaryotes or eukaryotes? Prokaryotes
How do prokaryotes divide Binary fission
How do eukaryotes divide? Mitosis or meiosis
What is an example of a eukaryotic cell Animal cell
GMO stands for Genetically modified organism
What is recombinate DNA The transfer of DNA from one organism to anohter. The same process used in GMO.
What does CRISPR stand for? This is when one pair of genes is edited at a time instead of editing the whole strand.
What are the three domains? Bacteria, Archae, Eukarya
How does the bacteria doman multiply? Binary Fission
What are the cell walls in the Bacteria domain made of? Peptidoglycan
What cell type is found in the Bacteria domain Prokaryotic
Do bateria have organelles? No
Examples of arrangements in the bacteria kingdom? Diplococcus, streptobacillus.
Are bacteria photo synthetic? Yes
What is an example of a monotrichus cell? Flagella which is one flagella at one end of the cell.
A lophotrichous cell has how many tales? 2 or more flagella at either or both ends of the cell
What is the chemical structure for photosynthesis. CO2+H2O --->C6H12O6+O2
What cell type is in the Archae domain? Prokaryotic
Archae is the oldest domain T or F T ---> archaeic
Archae thrives in ____ & ____ temps high; low
Archae thrives in ____ _____ concentrations salt water
The water for Archae can be up to ___ __ the salt concentration in the ocean. 10 times
Does the Eukarya domain have a true nucleus? Yes
Is the Eukarya domain single or multicellular multi
3 Examples of the Eukarya domain Fungi, protista, plants, animals, algae
When was Robert Hooke a scientist 1600s
Who had the eailesr recording of microbes Robert Hooke
What did Hooke study Plants, tree,s household items
Antoin Van Leewenhoek was a ______ ___________ microbiologist Self made
Who was the father of microbiology Leewenhoek
Brushing and flossing can prevent what event? A heart attack
Edward jenner was.... Found/created the small pox vaccination.
What occupation helped Jenner discover the vaccine? Dairy maids
Father of MEDICAL microbiology Robert Kock
Who discovered Pennicilin Alexander Flemming
What is the Schleiden and Schwan Theory He sais that all things are composed of cells, but that is not true because it hasn't been proved to be a law.
These two discovered spores and endospores Tyndell and Cohn
What are endospores resistent to? Heat, cleaners such as bleach and lysol, radiation
What charge is Crystal Violet Stain Positive
What charge does a cell have Negative
What stains can you use for a simple stain Crystal violet or methalyn blue
How many stains are used in differential staining 2 or more
Why do we used differential stains To distinguish (show) one group or organisms from another
What part of the cell is colored in positive staining? The cell components are colored and examplel would be a simple stain
What part of the cell is colored in negative staining? The background will be colored. The color from the stain does not penetrate the cell.
What is an example of a negative stain? Nigrosin, Eosin, India Ink and Congo red
Nigrosin, Eosin, India Ink and Congo red have what charge Negative
Will two like charges repel or attract Repel
What are special stains Stains that will color only specific structure inside the cell. Examples are capsule, endospore, and flagella
What do gram stains show The differences in the cell wall....
Fluorescent dues and tabs absorb what kind of light Ultraviolet light
Gram stain created by who and when? Hans Christian gram in 1884
Characteristics of gram + cell walls Thick, wall with peptidoglycan in the outter membrane
Characteristics of gram - cell walls Thinner cell wall with the peptidoglycan in the inner cell wall
What color will a gram + cell stain? Purple
What color will a gram - cell stain? Pink/red
What does an acid fast stain accomplish Allows you to see organisms that are hard to stain or de stain
What colors in acid fast Acid fast stains the color red, non acid fast stains the color blue.
Endospore stain Multistep procedue which has a primary stain and a counter stain
What kind of staining would I use to see an endospore A special stain in order to see two colors.
What is an example of a counter stain Safarin
What parts of the cell will the endospore stain color? The endospore and the vegetative cell
What color will the vegetative cell appear in an endospore stain Pink
What color will the endospore appear in an endospore stain Green
Stressed environment cause by what? 3 examples Lysol, bleach, heat, radiation, changes in the environment
What is sporogenesis It's what the organism does to make an endospore
What is germination The conversation of the endospore back to a metabolically acitve cell - a cell that's alive
What 2 genres of cells produce endospores? Bacillus and Clostridium
What does a capsule stain accomplish It colors the background which allows the capsule to stain out as a white halo around the organism
What kind of stain is the capsule stain...negative, simple, or special? Negative and special
Describe the coccus shape A sphere, oval, circle
Describe bacillus shapre A rod or cylindrical shape
Describe spirilla Rod shaped that is also curved or wavy
Describe spirochete Rod shaped that looks like a cork screw
Describe Coccobaccilus Looks like a combination of coccus and bacillis. long with rounded ends
Describe Virbio Curved rod or half moon shape
What are the arrangements for coccus Coccus - 1 cell - Diplococcus - 2 cells - Staphylococcus - cluster of grapes - Streptococcus - a chain of pearls - Scarcina - 8 with cell in the back and you cannot see in lab - Tetrad - 4 in a square shape.
What are the arrangements for bacillus - Baccili - 1 cell - Diplobacillus - 2 cells - Streptobacillus - a chain - Pallisades - a lines of many - Rosettes - in a V or Y shape
All cells must carry out which 4 functions -Enclose internal contents of the cell. -Replicate genetic information. (DNA) -Synthesize cellular compontents (make or create organelles, cilia, endospores, etc) -Produce, save, use, things like ATP (a compound)
What is the cell capsule made of Polysaccharides molecules
Which cells have a capsule? Most bacteria cells. Also prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
What is the cell wall function? Semi rigid par of the cell that keeps its shape and prevents it from rupturing
Cell/Plasma Membrane function - Forms boundary between the cell and the environment. - Regulates passage materials in and out of the cell. - Connects flagella - Helps when replicating DNA - Creates new cell wall components
What is the composition of the cell membrane? Phospholipid bilayer. Two layers of phoso(protein) lipids(fat). Fat is inside and the protein outside
What is the flagella used for? Movement
What is the composition/purpose of Cytoplasm - Semi fluid substance in the membrane that hold the organelles. - Made up of many thing! Enzymes, proteins, lipids and inorganic compounds.
What is the cytosol - Semifluid substance. Only the fluid, not the organelles
What are the Ribosomes Located in the cytoplasm Site where protein is created aka protein sythesis
What is the Nucleoid Region Only in prokayrotes and where DNA is arranged because there is no nucleus in these types of cells
What is the flagella? - A whip like structure that moves the cell and there are different types - Found on many bacilli and spirilla
What is Peritrichous When there are flagella all over the cell
What is Amphitrichouse? One flagella on each end of the cell
Atrichous No flagella at all
What are Pili? Similar to flagella, but they look shorter and thinner.
What is the function of attachement Pili They allow the bacteria to adhere to a surface - it makes them sticky
Where do you find a pili? Mainly on gram negative bacteria
What is the function of attachement Pili Used to attach to cells to transfer DNA and produce genetic energy
What is transduction The way that bacteria transfer DNA inside of a phage (which is a virus)
What is the slime layer? Protects the cell from drying out. Similiar to a capsule but thinner.
Where do you find endospores Bacillus and Clostridium
Name 3 parts (or structures) of an endospore Core, cortex, spore coat
Which viruses are a part of the Lytic Cycle 1. Cold 2. Stomach flu
Lysogenic cycle - which replicates The DNA or the host cell
Lysogenic is termed latent...why? Because there may or may not be immediate signs of infection or symptoms
Which viruses are a part of the Lysogenic Cycle 1. HIV/AIDS 2. Herpes
What are prions Infectious agent that has protein similar to amino acids, but lacks nucleic acids
What are causes of neurodegenerative disease CJD (humans), Scrapie (for sheep), Fatal Familial Insomnia, Made Cow disease
What is CJD CJD is the human for of mad cow disease
What is Zoonoses or Zoonotic disease Diseases that are natural to animals but can be given or transmitted to the humans accidentally
What are examples of Zooneses diseases Swine flu, Bird flu
How do we name/classify viruses? They are classified based on the type of tissue that the virus effects or attacks
Dermotrophic diseases attack... the skin
Neurotrophic diseases attack... The nervous system
Viscerotrophic diseases attack... The organs of the GI tract
Pneumontrophic diseases attack The organs of the respiratory system
Examples of Dermotrophic diseases Herpes Chicken pox Shingles
Examples of Neurotrophi... Rabies
Examples of Viscerotrophic... Rotovirus
Examples of Pneumontrophic... RSV
How many hosts can most viruses effect at one time mostly 1
How many tissue types can a virus effect 1
The type of infection depends on what? 1. Specific receptor sites on the host cell 2. Specifics attachment structures (capsule)
How do you destroy a non living virus? 1. Some disinfectants 2. Increasing temperature - fever 3. Freezing or thawing
Smallpox notes from in class video 1. Killed many in the middle ages 2. Left survivors permanently disfigured 3. Last cases of small pox was in Somalia 4. Erraticated in 1978 as a disease, but the virus is still in laboratories. 5. 2 collections left in the world: in Russia and GA
'Shift' notes from in class video When the flu virus mutates and the resistance is weakened or is gone all together.
Influenza notes from in class video 1. Allied troops fought spread. 2. Pandemic of 1815 touched every major US city. 3. 20 million people killed world wide. 4. More killed from the flu than from the 1st world war. 5. Started in France, the USA, Boston.
Jonas Salk notes from in class video 1. Developed polio vaccine 2. Now, more than 2 generations have grown up without polio 3. Died June 23, 1995
Edward Jenner notes from in class video 1. Observed that milk mades would get cow pox aka vaccinia 2. Used his son and sample from milk maid's cowpox to make first small pox vaccine
Hanta virus notes from in class video 1. Found in the Korean war 2. Caused hemmoraging, kidney failure, death 3. Traced to urine of field mice/rodents
Arboviruses notes from in class video
HIV /AIDS notes from in class video 1. No one knows the origin of AIDS. 2. Believed to be a mutation of a monkey virus 3. RNA virus, so it will mutate 4. Uses retroviruses to make a DNA copy of itself. 5. It hides itself in the cell, which makes it hard to find.
RNA viruses notes from in class video
Rotovirus notes from in class video 1. Primarily in places where there is only one water source for everything (the only water to bathing, cooking, using the bathroom, etc) 2. Kills 5 million people per year
Jeffery Amhurst notes from in class video
Hernando Cortez notes from in class video
How many different types of herpes are there? 7
Flu can adapt because of DNA or RNA? RNA - because there is no "checker" to know whether the strains are mutating or not.
Polio Pandemic 1. Symptoms - fever and muscle pain 2. When first found, children would be put into an "iron lung" 3. Transmitted in pool, spit, or other contaminated water
Small pox continued 1. 1519 Fernando Cortez brought Small Pox with him and killed the Aztec population
The rainforrest notes from in class video 1. 90% of the species on the earth are unknown to us 2. All of those species carry unknown species of organisms
Arboviruses 1. Carried by insects in the treetops of the rain forrest and on the forrest floors. 2. 30 strands of viruses that cause diseases in humans. 3. 40 viral strands the world has never seen before
Types of Microscopes 1. Light 2. Electron
Another term for light microscope. Optical Microscope
What are the names of the 4 types of light microscopes 1. Bright Field 2. Florescence 3. Dark field 4. Phase contrast
What are the 2 types of electron microscopes 1. Transmission 2. Scanning
What is accomplished by heat fixing 1. Keeps org on the slide 2. Kills org 3. Allows stain to stay
What charge does Crystal violet have Positive
What charge does Malachite Green have Positive
What charge does Nigrosin have Negative
What charge does Safarin have Positive
What charge does Eosine have Negative
What charge does Congo Red have Negative
What charge does Methylene Blue have Positive
How many stains are used in a simple stain One
How many stains are used in a differential stain Two or more
Examples of differential stain 1. Gram stain 2. Acid fast
What type of stains color the cell Positive
What type of stains do not penetrate the cell Negative
Three special stains 1. Capsule 2. Endospore 3. Flagella
Who created the gram stain Hans Christian Gram
What is an endospore a dormant or inactive cell
What two stains are used in the endospore stain Malachate green and
Vegetative cell Metabollically active cell
Sporogenesis The process a cell goes through to make an endospore
Capsule stain Colors the background allowing the capsule to stand out. White hallow around the organism
All cells must carry out which functions 1. Keep the contents of the cell in 2. Replicate the DNA 3. Synthesize the cellular components 4. Generate and store energy rich materials
What is the cell wall made of Polysaccharides
What does the cell membrane do 1. Forms a boundary between a cell and the environment 2. Assists with DNA replication 3. Allows the connection of flagella
What is the cytoplasm made of Enzymes, proteins, lipids, inorganic compounds
Where are ribosomes located In the cytoplasm
What do ribosomes consist of RNA and protein
What do ribosomes do Protein synthesis
What kind of cells have a nucleotoid region Prokaryotic
What happens in the nucleotoid region The dna is arranged
Define monotrichous One flagella
Define locotrichous 2 or more flagella at either or both ends
What is conjugation when pilli attach to another cell in order to transfer DNA
Resolving power how much detail can be seen in the microscope, stays nearly the same from one magnification to another
What is the slime layer and what does it do Thinner than the capsule, traps nutrients int he cell, help the cell stay bound togehter
Which two shapes will you find endospores bacillus and clostridium
3 parts of the endospore 1. core 2. cortex 3. spore coat
One of the first infectious agents to be found was on the tobacco plant
Who found bacteria on the tobacco plant Iwanowsky and Beijerinck
What does the word virus mean poisin
Which is bigger - viruses or bacteria bacteria
Is a virus living NO
Do viruses undergo cell division NO
Which domains can be infected by bacteria Archaea, Bacteria, Eucarya
Phage means to eat
Can a cell contain DNA and RNA at the same time? No, it can haveRNA or DNA but not both at once
What does a virus look like Helping hat from meet the Robinsons
What is a capsid The protective protein coat on a virus
What are capsomers Subunit of the capsid and is identical
What is a nucleocapsid The capsule of the virus with the enclosed nucleic acid
What is the charge of a proton positive
How can you tell how many neutrons there are in n element atomic mass-atomic number=neutrons
how many naturally occuring elements are there 92
Which 4 elements make up more than 99% of all living things? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
What is the atomic number The number of protons, which is also equal to the number of neutrons
How do you calculate atomic mass/weight the sum of the protons and neutrons
Rules for the electron shell No more than 8 in the outter ring
Define a molecule 2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
Define a covalent bond when atoms share an electron
Ionic bond An attractive force between two ions that have an opposite charge
What is an ion an atom or molecule that has more than 0 electric charge
pH scale examples in order 14,, dish det 13. bleach 12. soapy water. 11. ammonia. 10. milk of magnesia 9. toothpaste 8. eggs 7. water 6. urine 5. black coffee 4. tomatoe juice 3. orange juice 2. lemon juice 1. hydrochloric acid 0. battery acid
What are hydrogen bonds Bonds that are half and half. Partially positive and partially negative. They are weak bonds
What does the logarithmic scale measure The potential hydrogen concentration: a scale of 0-4
What numbers represent acid on the pH scale 0-6
What number represent alkaline on the pH scale 8-14
What number represents neutrality on the pH scale 7
What is the micromolecule for Protein Amino acids
What are the 4 levels of structure for proteins primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
What is the micromolecule for carbohydrates saccharides
What is monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide 1 molecule of sugar: 2 molecules of sugar: 3 or more moleules of sugar
What does RNA do for DNA It decodes the information in the DNA into molecules
What is a very common lipid Fat/glycerol
How long did the influenza pandemic last 17 days
How many people did the influenza pandemic kill 20 mill world wide
What percentage of people were killed by the influenza pandemic in India 4%
What percentage of people were killed by the influenza pandemic in Alaska 8%
What percentage of people were killed by the influenza pandemic in the Southerrn Seas 20%
How did the influenza pandemic spread From the US to France to Boston
What is a SHIFT When a diseased/bacteria changes dramaticaly
Is small pox DNA or RNA virus DNA
Jeffrey Amhurst Gave small pox infested blankets to Native Americans to kill them and claim their land
Where are the last smallpox cells stored CDC in GA and in Moscow
Which two organizations worked together to eliminate small pox WHO and CDC (World health organization and Center for disease control)
What happens when a protein misfolds If effects other proteins and causes disease
What are two diseases caused by proteins misfolding 1. Mad cow disease aka CJD in humans 2. Fatal familial insomnia
What food is an example of where you can obtain glucose vegetables
What food is an example of where you can obtain fructose fruit
What food is an example of where you can obtain galactose dairy (galaxy/milky way)
What food is an example of where you can obtain deoxyribose or ribose potatoes/bread
3' - 5'....is this the leading or lagging strand lagging strand
Is DNA double or single stranded double
Is RNA double or single stranded single
How do the bases pair together in DNA A=T T=A G=C C=G
How do the bases pair together in RNA A=U U=A G=C C=G
What is the lytic cycle The virus will attach to the bacteria or host cell by one of the cell's receptors/ Inject their dna/rna or it completely enters the cell. Then, it tells the cell to create generic copies of the virus. The cell with lyse and the virus spreads.
What types of virus is an example of the lytic cycle? the common cold
What is the lytogenic cycle. The virus will inject the genetic material directly into the host's DNA. Then, when the cell divides, the virus is duplicated over and over. The virus will stay dormant until there is a trigger that unleashed them from the cell
What virus is and example of the lysogenic cycle HIV/AIDS
What is a purine A double ringed structure (small word/big structure)
What is a pyrimidine A small structure (big word/small structure)
Created by: krisette