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Endocrine & Blood

Bio 169-Endocrine System

Which system controls body actions through nerve impulses and neurotransmitters? Nervous System
Which system controls body activities by releasing mediator molecules called hormones? Endocrine System
What systems are known as the neuroendocrine system? Nervous and Endocrine
Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts, and the ducts carry the secretions to the target site? True
Includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, kidneys, gastrointestinal organs, and pineal glands? Endocrine Glands
What are hormones called that act locally without first entering the blood stream? Local Hormones
These hormones travel in blood and act on distant target cells are called? Circulating Hormones
Hormone that is secreted by thyrotrophs. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Hormone secreted by gonadotrophs Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone that is secreted by somatotrophs. Human growth hormone (hGH)
Hormones secreted by lactrotrophs. Prolactin (PRL)
Hormones secreted by corticotrophs. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
The most plentiful anterior pituitary hormone is known as what? Human growth hormone (hGH)
What is a symptom of excess hGH? Hyperglycemia
Maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands Prolactin (PRL)
Increases skin pigmentation Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Secretion of estrogens in the ovaries Follicle-stimulatimg hormone (FSH)
Stimulates sperm production in the testes Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
What stimulates contraction of the uterus and ejection of milk from breasts? Oxytocin
Stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriolar constriction. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within a large molecule called? Thyroglobin (TGB)
Causes muscles to contract or glands to secrete Nervous System
Alters metabolism, regulating growth and development, and influencing reproductive processes Endocrine System
Hormones that act on neighboring cells are called Paracrines
Hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them are called Autocrines
What is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine system? Hypothalamus
Located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is differentiated into the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary? Pituitary Gland
This feedback system regualtes hormonal secretions Negative
Increases sodium and water reabsorption and decreases potassium reabsorption Mineralocorticoids
Promotes breakdown of proteins, formation of glucose, lipolysis, resistance to stress, anti-inflammatory effects, and depression of the immune response Glucocorticoids
These hormones help the body resist stress Epinepherine and Norepinephrine
Located in the brain Pineal gland
Ovaries are located in what cavity? Pelvic
Regulation of glucagon and insulin secretion. is via ______ feedback mechanisms. Negative
This organ can be classified as both an __________________ and _____________ gland. Endocrine and Exocrine
Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones known as Testosterone
What do the ovaries produce? Inhibin and relaxin
This gland secretes several hormones related to immunity Thymus
Stimulates cell growth and division Growth factors
What type of tissue is blood made of? Connective
Composed of plasma and formed elements? Blood
The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them is called? Hematology
Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, heat, wastes, and hormones? Blood
True or False: Blood prevents blood loss through clotting and combats toxins and microbes through certain phagocytic white blood cells or specialized plasma proteins. True
An inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma Hemophilia
A malignant disease of blood-forming tissues characterized by uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes is known as Acute Leukemia
Inherited disorder due to an abnormal kind of hemoglobin is called Sickle-cell Disease
A condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced Anemia
When RBCs have a sickle shape, rupture easily, and show a reduced oxygen carrying capacity results in this type of anemia Hemolytic
There is an accumulation of mature leukocytes in the bloodstream because they do not die at the end of their normal life span Chronic Leukemia
A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus Hemolytic disease of the newborn
How much water is in blood plasma? 91.5%
What are the formed elements of blood? Erythrocytes(RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) and Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood Hematocrit
A significant drop in hematocrit indicates this Anemia
The percentage of RBCs is abnormally high with a higher than normal hematocrit Polycythemia
Contain the oxygen -carrying protein hemoglobin and number about 5.4 million cells/microliter of blood Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Contains hemoglobin, biconcave discs RBCs
Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, functions in blood pressure regulation Hemoglobin
How long does RBCs live? 120 days
Occurs in adult red bone marrow of certain bones Erythrocyte formation aka erythropoiesis
Main stimulus for erythropoiesis is? Hypoxia
Nucleated cells that do not contain hemoglobin Leukocytes (WBCs)
The function of leukocytes is to combat inflammation and infection True
How does WBCs leave the blood stream? Emigration
The chemical attraction of WBCs to a disease or injury site is termed? Chemotaxis
How long does WBCs live? Few hours or days
Increase in the number of WBCs Leukocytosis
Leukopenia refers to abnormally low number of ? WBCs
Platelets help stop blood loss from damaged vessels by forming what? Platelet plug
A test that screens for anemia A Complete blood count
Refers to the stoppage of bleeding Hemostasis
Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called Thrombosis
Bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or piece of debris transported by the bloodstream that moves from the site of origin Embolus
Another name for clot Thrombus
Bilobed nucleus, pink staining granules Eosinophil
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Created by: nettadanielle89