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AP2/ Exam 1

Chapters 17-20

Eicosanoids primary type of hormones, local hormones derived from fatty acids, and are synthesized through a series of enzymes
What is the most important regulator of electrolyte concentration? Aldosterone, its released from the adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II, decreases Na+ in plasma or increases K+ in plasma
What is the associated action of a steroid on the cell membrane? steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane of the target cell because they are lipid soluble, the steroid hormone then binds with a specific receptor in the cytoplasm
What are enzymes? Proteins that catalyzes a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
Function of hormones Hormones are chemical substances that affect activity of another part of the body (target site) Serve as messengers Controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body Polar, cannot diffuse across plasma membrane Lipid soluble
Hypothalamus gland Regulatory hormones, releases hormones from anterior pituitary Target-ANTERIOR PITUITARY
Hypothalamus (posterior pituitary) Antidiuretic hormone stimulates both kidneys and decreases urine output and thirst center inhibited by alcohol oxytocin hormones contracts smooth muscle of uterus Target-KIDNEYS
Pituitary gland Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), target-THYROID Prolactin Follicle stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone Growth Hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) pituitary gland and its function is to release thyroid hormone
Prolactin regulates mammary gland growth and breast milk target-MAMMARY GLANDS
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) controls development of oocyte and ovarian follicle and controls development of sperm target-GONADS
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) induces ovulation of secondary oocyte and controls testosterone synthesis
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids
Growth hormone (GH) release of insulin like growth factors (IGF) from liver GH and IGF work synergistically to induce growth target-SOFT TISSUE, BONE
Pineal gland melatonin hormone regulates body biological clock and functions in sexual maturation target-BRAIN
Thyroid gland T3-Triiodothyronine and T4-tetraiodothyronine hormones increases metabolic rate of all cells Calcitonin hormone-decreases blood calcium levels target-BONES,KIDNEYS,INTESTINES
Parathyroid gland increase blood calcium levels from bone tissue and decrease calcium in urine
Thymus gland produces thymosin, thymulin, and thymopoietin Maturation of T-lymphocytes where inflammatory process occurs
Adrenal cortex gland Mineralcortocoids glucocorticoids Gonadocorticoids
Mineralcotocoids regulate Na+ and K+ by decreasing Na+ and increase K+ Aldosterone is most important target-KIDNEYS
Glucocorticoids participate in stress response
Gonadocorticoids stimulate maturation and functioning of reproductive system target-GONADS, SKIN, MUSCLES, and BONE
Adrenal Medulla gland Epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones and effects the sympathetic division of ANS target-CARDIAC, other MUSCLES
Pancreas Insulin hormone to decrease blood glucose and glucagon to increase target-LIVER, MUSCLES, ADIPOSE TISSUE
Testes Testosterone hormone Inhibin hormone
Ovaries estrogen and progesterone hormone Inhibin hormone
Heart Atrial Natriuretic peptide hormone primarily to decrease blood pressure
Kidneys Erythropoietin (EPO)hormone to increase production of red blood cells
Liver Angiotensinogen increase bp by causing vasoconstriction and decreasing urine output IGF and EPO
Stomach Gastrin hormone facilitates digestion within the stomach
small intestine secretin hormone- help maintain normal ph Cholecystokinin to facilitate digestion of nutrients
skin vitamin D3 hormone
Adipose connective tissue helps regulate food intake
How does thyroid hormone exert its influence on cells that have receptors for it? enters and binds to intracellular receptors within the nuclei resulting in the formation of a different molecule w/in the cell
What are second messengers? intracellular chemical modifying activity within a cell after the first messenger binds to the plasma membrane Employs the services of G proteins and cAMP
How are substances transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland? Hormones are released from the hypothalamus into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system which controls specific cells of the anterior pituitary to release their hormones into general circulation, TSH, PRL, FSH, LH, ACTH, and GH
How do glucocoticoids enable the body to deal with stress? increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing bp
What are the categories of hormones? Steroid Eicosanoids Biogenic Amines -Amino acid Proteins-peptides
What substances and glands are responsible for calcium metabolism? Parathyroid gland produces parathyroid hormone and regulates calcium ions.
How do parathyroid glands affect calcium metabolism? increase blood calcium levels by stimulating both releases from bone tissue and decrease loss of calcium in urine
What is the hypophyseal portal system? system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. Function to quickly transport and exchange hormones
What are the cells that have the major receptors for Growth hormone? Anterior pituitary gland/somatotrope
What is Leptin? hormone produced in the Adipose connective tissue that helps regulate food intake
What are the types of Endocrine gland stimulis? Hormonal stimulis Humoral stimulis Nervous system stimulation
Hormonal stimulus stimulus for the release of hormones from the endocrine gland is the binding of another hormone
Humoral stimulus endocrine glands are stimulated to release their hormones in response to the changing level of nutrient molecules w/in blood
Nervous System stimulus few endocrine glands stimulated to release hormones by direct stimulation from the nervous system
What amine hormone acts like a steroid? Thyroid hormone is an amino acid that easily diffuse into target cells
What is oxytocin? produced from the hypothalamus from the posterior pituitary it contracts smooth muscle of the uterus, ejection of milk, and increase feelings of emotional bonding
What is down regulation? process that a cell decrease its number of receptors and reduces cell's sensitivity to a hormone
What is up regulation? a process when cells increase the number of receptors thereby increasing cell sensitivity to a hormone
What are the cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus? Polyuria Polyphagia Polydipsia
Polyuria excessive urination
Polyphagia excessive eating
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Aldosterone most important mineralcorticoid and helps maintain Na+ balance stimulates reabsorption to kidneys its stimulated by rise in K+, low blood Na+, decrease in bv and bp
layers of the adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa- mineralocorticoids/aldosterone zona fasciculata-glucocorticoids/cortisol zona reticularis-gonadocorticoids/androgens
Why are red blood cells replaced every 120 days? wear and tear, unable to repair themselves like other cells because there is no nucleus
What is the sequence of development of erythrocyte? process of Erythropoiesis which produces red blood cells. stimulated by decrease of O2 in circulation, which is then detected by the kidneys, which then secrete the hormone erythopoietin
What type of substance or compound is blood? a specialized fluid of erythrocytes(rbc), leukocytes(wbc), and platelets plasma fluid portion
What stimulates the process of sickle cell anemia and what are the symptoms associated with it? an autosomal recessive anemia that occurs when a person inherits 2 copies of the gene, causes red blood cells to become misshapen and break down. pain in joints, chest pain, dizziness, fatigue, low o2 in the body, unable to make conc or dilute urine
What is polycythemia vera? What symptoms are associated with it? is a slow growing blood cancer which your bone marrow makes too many red blood cellscan cause blood clots, heart attack, and stroke symptoms os itchiness, headaches, dizziness, bleeding, weakness, and fatigue
What is aplastic anemia? significantly decreased formation of both erythrocytes and hemogoblin resulting from defective red bone marrow
Erythocytes Red Blood cells function to transport respiratory gases in the blood
What is plasma? the fluid portion of blood containing plasma proteins and dissolved solutes
What are some of the protective functions of blood? leukocytes(lymphocytes), plasma proteins, and other various molecules help protect body against harmful substances platelets and plasma proteins also protect the body against blood loss
What is the composition of plasma proteins? Albumins- most abundant Globulins-alpha, beta, and gamma Fibrinogen-important in blood clot formation
Normal ph of blood? 7.35-7.45
What is the function of platelets/thrombocytes? react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, initiating a blood clot
Are packed cells used for blood volume restores? NO
What are the characteristics of leukocytes (wbc)? contribute to defending the body against pathogens contain a nucleus and cellular organelles, and do not contain hemogloblin motile and flexible and found within body tissues
What is the process in extrinsic clotting? triggered by a chemical called tissue factor III and tissue factor VII and Ca+, a protein extrinsic to blood that is released by damaged cells Is activated by external trauma
If a person is AB + blood, what does that mean? there are no antibodies to A, B or to Rh antigens in the plasma
Chemotaxis Process in which leukocytes are attracted to a site of infection inflammatory response
What is hypotension? chronically low bp that results in symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, and fainting
What are the characteristics of blood vessels? the conduits or soft pipes of the cardiovascular system that transport blood throughout the body 3 primary types, Arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arteries carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins carry blood BACK to the heart
Capillaries serve as site of exchange, either between the blood and the air sacs
What is vasodilation? widening of the blood vessel lumen and decreases bp caused by the relaxation of smooth muscle cells in arteries causes an increase in blood flood
In infants and young people, what type of vascular issues are most common? Congenital heart disease and congenital vascular disease
Congenital heart disease an abnormality in the heart that develops before birth
Congenital vascular disease an abnormality of formed blood vessels that one is born with
What is pulmonary circulation? the movement of deoxygenated blood through the left side of the heart, blood vessels to the systemic cells and blood vessels that return blood to the right sides of the heart
What is the carotid sinus for? What do they reflect? located in the internal carotid artery transmit nerve signals to the cardiovascular center through the glossopharyngeal nerve monitor bp changes in the head and neck
What is a precapillary sphincter/ at the origin of each true capillary, a smooth muscle ring that controls blood flow into the true capillaries
What is the first branch of the femoral artery? deep femoral artery emerges from the femoral artery to supply the hip joint via medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries
Azygos vein drains the right side veins and also receives blood from the hemiazygos veins and also drains the superior vena cava
Are there anastomose in the pancreas? No, its an organ with arteries that do not have anastomes
If there is an obstruction to the superior vena cava, what areas would be blocked? the top extremities, the brain, neck, arms, and etc
What is circulatory shock, multiple types? is any state in which there is insufficient blood flow for adequate perfusion of the body's tissues, due to impaired pumping of the heart or low venous return. hypovolemic shock vascular shock anaphylactic shock neurogenic shock septic cardiogenic
hypovolemic shock low blood volume, severe hydration
vascular shock poor circulation from extreme dilation of blood vessels
Anaphylactic shock allergic reaction from body wide vessel dilation due to histamine release
Neurogenic shock failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate cardiovascular function
Septic shock severe systemic bacterial infection, releases vasodilator toxins
Cardiogenic shock marked decrease in Carbon dioxide due to decrease in heart's contractility
What influence does blood vessel diameter have on peripheral resistance? blood tend to flow fastest at the center of the vessel lumen, while blood near the sides of the vessels are slow because it encounters resistance from the nearby vessel wall
What is hypovolemic shock? a life threatening condition that results when you lose 20 % of your body's blood or fluid supply. This makes it impossible for the heart to pump sufficiently
Is hydrostatic pressure the equivalent of capillary blood pressure? yes because capillary bp is the force that drives fluid out of capillaries and into the tissues
What is ductus venosus? blood from the umbilical cord travels through this to travel directly to the inferior vena cava
What is the function of the Hepatic portal vein? drains blood to the liver from the splenic vein, inferior mesenteric vein, and the superior mesenteric vein
What are arterioles? are the smallest arteries, have fewer than 6 layers of smooth muscle in their tunica media
What are the 3 types of capillaries? continuous fenestrated sinusoidal
Continuous capillaries most common type endothelial cells form a complete, continuous lining around the lumen that rests on a complete basement membrane allowing small molecules like water and ions to diffuse through tight junctions
Fenestrated capillaries have pores in the endothelial cells they allow small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse
Sinussoidal capillaries are a special type of capillary that have larger openings and allow red and white blood cells and various serum proteins to pass using a process aided by a discontinuous basal lamina
What factors affect venous blood flow? radius of the veins larger the radius the faster the blood flow and smaller radius will slow down
What is the difference between hypertension and hypotension? hypertension is having chronically elevated bp and hypotension is having chronically low
If a person has essential hypertension ex: 200/120, what particular characteristic would this person experience? increased work of left ventricle, increased incidence of coronary artery disease, and increased damage to blood vessel endothelium
For short term control of bp, what would be the obvious mode of treatment for that? Proper hydration, avoid coffee, eat fruits and veggies, eat potassium rich foods, meditating, and get some sleep
What can cause secondary hypertension? having a medical condition in the kidney, artery, heart, or endocrine system problems can cause this ex: arteriosclerosis
What part of the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high O2 levels causing vasodilation? lungs
What is a normal bp for a newborn? systolic 67-84/diastolic 35-53
When a person's bp is almost normal, do they lose a little blood? Does that mean they are receiving adequate blood flow? no because other situations can give you normal bp and still have some other form that is affecting
What major shunts are found in the fetal heart/fetal circulation? Ductus arteriosus ductous venosus Foramen ovale
Ductus Arteriosus protects lungs against circulatory overload and allows the right ventricle to strengthen
Ductus Venosus fetal blood vessel connecting the umbilical cord vein to the inferior vena cava
Foramen Ovale shunt that is highly oxygenated blood from the right atrium to the left atrium
What situations can cause an increase in arterial bp? anything that will excite the body like stress, exercise, pain and discomfort
Where are baroreceptors located? What are they indicative of? located in the carotid sinus and in the aortic arch and their function is to sense pressure changes by responding to change in the tension of the arterial wall
Does blood flow in the skin increase when temperature increase? yes it does because to effect transfer of metabolic heat from the core to the skin
Created by: vtlove116



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