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Advanced Med Term.

Chabner, Language of Medicine 11th edition-Chapter 19 Vocab words

TermDefinition
adjuvant chemotherapy Assisting primary treatment
alkylating agents Synthetic chemicals containing alkyl groups that attack DNA
anaplasia Loss of differentiation of cells
angiogenesis Process of forming new blood vessels
antibiotics Chemicals produced by bacteria or primitive plants; inhibit growth of cells
antimetabolites Chemicals that prevent cell division; inhibit formation of substances needed to make DNA
antimitotics Drugs that block cell division
apoptosis Programmed cell death
benign tumor Noncancerous growth (neoplasm)
biological response modifiers Produced by normal cells; directly block tumor growth or stimulate immune system to fight cancer
biological therapy Use of the body’s own defenses to destroy tumor cells
brachytherapy Use of radiation placed directly on or within the cancer
carcinogens Agents that cause cancer
carcinoma Cancerous tumor made up of cells of epithelial origin
cellular oncogenes Pieces of DNA, activated by mutations or dislocation, that can cause a normal cell to become malignant
chemotherapy Treatment with drugs
combination chemotherapy Use of several chemotherapeutic agents together in treatment of tumors
dedifferentiation Loss of differentiation of cells
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell; controls cell division and protein synthesis
differentiating agents Drugs that promote tumor cells to differentiate, stop growing, and die
differentiation Specialization of cells
electron beams Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors
encapsulated Surrounded by a capsule; benign tumors are encapsulated
external beam irradiation Applying radiation to a tumor from a source outside the body
fields Dimensions of body areas undergoing irradiation
fractionation Giving radiation in small, repeated doses
genetic screening Testing family members to determine if they have inherited a cancer-causing gene
grading tumors Evaluating the degree of maturity of tumor cells
gray (gy) Unit of absorbed radiation dose
gross description of tumors Visual appearance of tumors to the naked eye
infiltrative Extending beyond normal tissue boundaries into adjacent tissues
invasive Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue
irradiation Exposure to any form of radiant energy such as light, heat, or x-rays
linear accelerator Large electronic device that produces high-energy x-ray beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors
malignant tumor Tumor having the characteristics of continuous growth, invasiveness, and metastasis
mesenchymal Embryonic connective tissue
metastasis Spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site
microscopic description of tumors Appearance of tumors when viewed under a microscope
mitosis Replication of cells
mixed-tissue tumors Tumors composed of different types of tissue
modality Method of treatment, such as surgery, chemotherapy, or irradiation
molecularly targeted therapy Anticancer drugs designed to block the function of growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways in specific tumor cells
morbidity Condition of being unwell; deficient in normal function
mucinous Containing mucus
mutation Change in DNA; may be spontaneous or caused by chemicals, radiation, or viruses
neoplasm New growth; benign or malignant tumors
nucleotide Unit of DNA composed of a sugar, phosphate, and a base
oncogene Region of DNA in tumor cells or in viruses that causes cancer
palliative Relieving, but not curing symptoms
pedunculated Possessing a stem or stalk
photon therapy Radiation therapy using energy in the form of x-rays or gamma rays
protocol Detailed plan for treatment of an illness
proton therapy Use of protons produced by a cyclotron to deposit a dose of radiation at a tightly focused point in the body
radiation Energy carried by a stream of particles
radiocurable tumor Tumor that is destroyed by radiation therapy
radioresistant tumor Tumor that requires large doses of radiation to be destroyed
radiosensitive tumor Tumor in which radiation can cause the death of cells without serious damage to surrounding tissue
radiosensitizers Drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumors to x-rays
radiotherapy Treatment of tumors using doses or radiation
relapse Recurrence of tumor after treatment
remission Partial or complete disappearance of symptoms of disease
ribonucleis acid (RNA) Cellular substance that represents a copy of DNA; directs formation of new protein inside cells
sarcoma Cancerous tumor derived from connective or flesh tissue
serous Having the appearance of a thin, watery fluid
sessile Having no stem
simulation Study using CT scan or MRI to map treatment before RT is given
solid tumor Tumor composed of a mass of cells
staging of tumors System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumors
stereotactic radiosurgery Delivery of dose of radiation under stereotactic guidance
steroids Complex, naturally occurring chemicals derived from cholesterol
surgical procedures to treat cancer Methods of removing cancerous tissue
viral oncogenes Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant
virus Infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host’s genetic material to copy itself
Created by: Mrs.Aitchison