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A & P 1/Exam #3

Chapters 9-11

axial skeleton composed of bones along the central axis of the body divided into 3 regions skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage
sutures of the skull coronal suture squamosal suture lambdoidal
coronal suture transverse suture in the skull separates frontal bone from parietal bone
squamosal suture arches backward from the pterion, connects the temporal squama and the lower parietal
lambdoidal suture dense connective tissue joint on posterior aspect of the skull connects parietal with occipital
What vertebra don't have a body? cervical vertebra (atlas)
flexion movement that decreses the angle between the articulating bones
extension increasing the articulating angle
ball and socket joints multiaxial joints in which the spherical articulating head of one bone fits into the rounded cuplike socket of a second bone
ligamentum teres "ligament of head of femur" tiny ligament originates along acetabulum
Where is the pituitary gland housed? endocrine system sella turcica of the sphenoid behind the nose, near the underside of brain attached to the hypothalamus
Functions of the intervertebral discs? pads of fibrocartilage 1/4 of entire vertebral column length shock absorbers between the vertebral bodies permit bending
Where is the peritoneal sinuses located? center of the forehead (frontal bone) just above the eye
lordosis lumbar curvature "swayback" protusion of abdomen and buttocks
kyphosis thoracic curvature directed posteriorly, hunchback, often resulting from osteoporosis
scoliosis most common spinal curvature deformity abnormal lateral curvature vertebral arch and body fail to form
What bone is in direct contact with the 1st metatarsal? Medial cuneiform
The location of the center of gravity in the human body? lies approximately anterior to the second sacral vertebra but changes constantly with new position
inferior orbital fissure bone makeup junction of maxilla, sphenoid, and zygomatic bones
ethmoid bone 3 but 2 associated (nasal bone)
What are hinge joints? convex feature of one bone fits into concave depression of another
What type of joint is symphysis? has a pad of fibrocartilage between the articulating bones ex: intervertebral joints
What is synovial fluid? viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in cavities of synovial joints reduce friction between articular cartilage of synovial joints
muscle that serves as IM injection deltoid muscle of the arm vastus lateralis muscle of thigh ventrogluteal muscle of the hip dorsogluteal muscle of the buttocks
Types of levers 1st class /ex: scissors 2nd class/ex: wheelbarrow 3rd class/ex: tweezers
1st class lever fulcrum in middle, betwwen effort and the the resistance
2nd class lever resistance between fulcrum and the applied effort
3rd class lever effort is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum
What tongue muscle allows you to stick it out? genioglossus-paired extrinsic muscles of the tongue, major muscle responsible for protruding the tongue
muscles involved in wrinkling forehead frontal belly of occipito frontalis
What is a lever? Advantages? elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point -ability to alter to change the speed and distance of movement produced by a force, direction of applied force, the force strength
muscles that make up the hamstring -biceps femoris (short head/long head) -semimembranosus -semitendinosus
What muscle is attached to the calcanean tendon also called Achilles tendon gastrocnemius and soleus also known as triceps surae
Pennate muscle pattern feather fascicles exhibit to some angle with respect to their tendon -resemble a lg feather -1 or more tendons extending through their body -arranged at an oblique angle to tendon
What muscle type has 1 nucleus, 0 sacromeres, and rare gap junctions? multiunit smooth muscle
What determines power of muscle? amount of force a muscle can produce in a single contraction
What is an antagonist? muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle
Synergist muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement
fixator muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle
agonist muscle primarily responsible for bringing about a particular movement
Type of muscle found around openings around circular muscles orbicularis oris muscle encircles the opening of the mouth ex: sphincter muscles
Muscle responsible got torticollis (wryneck) newborn presents with a shortened and tightened sternocleidomastoid muscle -causes hematoma and fibrosing of the muscle tissue
Muscle responsible for sucking and whistling Buccinator
Muscle responsible for respiration diaphragm
What is auricular orbital?
Hyoid bone muscle associations suprahyoid (anterior)- superior to hyoid infrahyoid (inferior)- inferior to the hyoid
suprahyoid muscles act as a group to elevate the hyoid bone during swallowing or speaking
infrahyoid contract to influence the position of the hyoid bone and the larynx
muscles that make up the compartment of the thigh anterior-lg quadriceps femoris and Sartorius medial-gracilis posterior-biceps femoris, semimembranosus semitendinosus
Paralysis and can't flex thigh What muscle is involved? tensor fasciae latae
Anatomy and physiology of muscle composed of skeletal muscle fibers, connective tissue layers, blood vessels , and nerves
fascicles muscle fibers that are organized in bundles
Connective tissue epimysium perimysium endomysium
epimysium a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole skeletal muscle
perimysium surrounds the fascicles dense irregular connective tissue sheath of the perimysium contains extensive rays of blood vessels and nerves
endomysium the innermost connective tissue layer delicate areolar connective tissue layer that surrounds and electrically insulates each muscle fiber
tendon thick, cordlike structure composed of dense regular connective tissue
aponeurosis wide broad flattened sheet of dense irregular tissue ex: epicranial aponeuroses
deep fascia visceral or muscular fascia an additional expansive sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that is external to the epimysium
superficial fascia deep fascia is internal or deep
vascularized skeletal muscle extensive network of blood vessels
innervated skeletal muscle functionally connected to and controlled by motor neurons
muscle functions movement, stabilizing, storing and moving substances throughout the body, heat generation
3 types of skeletal muscles red/ slow- slow twitch fibres red/fast- fast oxidation fibres white/fast- fast glycolytic fibres
Z-disc the ends of one sarcomere
I band place where you can only see thin filaments
A band length of thick filament
H zone only can see thick filament
M line middle of sarcomere, holds thick filament in place
myosin binding site for ATP and actin
actin myosin bonding site, in thin myofilaments
tropomyosin covers myosin binding sites
troponin Tnl(actin ) Tnt(Tropomyosin) ThC(Calcium)
action potential calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum into sarcoplasm calcium binds to TnC
myofibrils rod like unit of a muscle
refractory period period of lost excitability after stimulus is applied
what is rigor mortis? stiffening of the joints and muscles of the body a few hours after death, usually lasting from one to 4 days
What are T-Tubules? Transverse tubules infoldings of the sarcolemma extending from one side to the other convey electrical signals from the surface to the interior
What part of the skeletal muscle is responsible for calcium storage? sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) found within muscle cells
What does oxygen deficit refer to? the amount of additional oxygen that is consumed following pre-exercise to restore pre-exercise conditions.
What is excitation contraction coupling? What makes it possible? the process by which an electrical stimulus triggers the release of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum this initiates the mechanism of muscle contraction by sarcomere shortening
What is TREPPE? is an increase in muscle tension that occurs when not all calcium is returned to the SR prior to the next stimulus and muscle temp increases
What is isotonic contraction? What occurs to muscle? when muscle tension results in movement of the muscle -tone in the muscle remains the same as the length of muscle changes ex: walking, lifting a baby, or swinging a tennis racket
What is fontanelle? soft spot is an anatomical feature of the infant skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps between the cranial bones
ATP of muscle Already present within the skeletal muscle fiber is hydrolyzed by ATPase source of energy that keeps everything going helps with muscle contraction, the making of ATP must start quickly
Role of calcium in muscle cell to ensure contraction muscle creates force and shortens, which triggers the SR to release Ca ions into the muscle interior bind to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift from the face of the actin filament to which myosin heads need to bind
What is protein titin? Also known as connectin giant protein cable like that extends from the Z disc to the M line functions as a molecular spring, which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle
Sequence of muscle contraction -excitation -excitation-contraction coupling -contraction -relaxation
functional classification of a joint determination amount of mobility found between the adjacent bones
adductor magnus function powerful adductor of the thigh, made especially active when legs are moved from a wide spread positon to one in which the legs parallel each other
muscle cells regeneration ability process by which damaged skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle undergoes biological repair and formation of new muscle in response to death (necrosis) of muscle cells
Where is oxygen binding found in muscles? Myoglobin is a reddish , globular protein that is somewhat similar to hemoglobin (blood) binds at rest and releases during muscle contraction
Difference in skeletal and smooth muscle Difference in way of contraction smooth muscles has no visible striations, sarcomeres or Z discs skeletal muscle is voluntary and smooth is involuntary
Sliding filament model of muscular contraction the myosin(thick) filaments of muscle fibers slide past the actin(thin) filaments during muscle contraction , while the 2 groups of filaments remain at relatively constant length
Function of acetylcholinesterase enzyme which breaks up acetylcholine into acetate and choline so that it doesn't over stimulate post synaptic nerves, muscles, and exocrine glands
Is muscle tissue capable of converting chemical energy to mechanical energy yes, the conversion occurs due to the ability of muscles to contract and relax
Smooth muscle has actin and myosin? T or F True/ its not arranged the same way as skeletal muscle
Actin and myosin are shortening? T or F False/actin and myosin are sliding but they stay the same length
ACH flows down the T-tubules like water? T or F False/ ACH does not go down T-tubules, they stay in that gap gets broken down by achE
motor unit all of the muscle fiber cells controlled by a single motor neuron "all or nothing"
muscle fatigue depletion of oxygen which decreases ATP depletion of glucose which also decreases ATP lactic acid build up
Muscles make up approx. 30% of the body's weight? T or F False
The origin is the muscle attached to the bone at the point that is more fixed part of the skeleton? T or F True
Heat production is caused by muscles converting energy through the 2nd law of Dynamics? T or F True
Muscle produce movement by contracting and relaxing causing the joint to bend? T or F True
Cardiac muscles are located in the heart and are interconnecting and move as a unit? T or F True
Smooth muscles have multiple nuclei as in the skeletal muscles? T or F False
Muscle located in the ureters are examples of smooth muscles? T or F True
Muscle flexion is movement that makes the angle between 2 bones at their joints smaller than it was at the beginning? T or F True
The term neuromuscular means pertaining to the muscles and the skeletal system? T or F False
The term antagonists refers to muscle that acts with another muscle to produce and assist movement? T or F False
A tendon is a band of connective tissue that holds muscle to the bone? T or F True
Contraction is the process of drawing up or thickening of a muscle fiber? T or F True
Sarcolemma is the fibrous membranes surrounding each tendon? T or F False
A tumor originating in the muscle fiber is called myofibroma? T or F True
Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine that can cause respiratory problems? T or F True
Kyphosis is an exaggerated inward curvature of the spine? T or F False
Created by: vtlove116
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