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Chapters 5-9

A & P 1/ Exam #2

What is the matrix of cartilage? contains large amounts of extracellular matrix that is rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers contains blood vessels
What is matrix of bone? intercellular substance of bone tissue consisting of collagen fibers, ground substance, and inorganic bone salts
Why do intervertebral discs exhibit large amount of strength? They possess collagen fibers, which allows them to absorb shock
Characteristics of bone in relationship to composition? compact and spongy bone bone is composed of calcium, mostly collagen, bone is living, growing tissue 4 cells in bone osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast
What is stratified squamous epithelial? many layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells as its surface
Goblet cells are found within pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.. T or F True
Epithelial tissues exhibit apicabasal polarity; meaning that cell regions near apical surface differ from those near the basal surface? T or F True
Depending on the functional state of bladder, transitional epithelium may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium... T or F True
Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally until the cell ruptures... T or F False
Salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement... T or F False
Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature... T or F True
Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands... T or F False
Cell type not found in areolar Chondrocytes
How does Addison's Disease affect the integumentary system? hypocortosol darkening of the skin in both exposed and non-exposed parts of the body bronzing of the skin
Dermal papilla top part-papillary layer of the dermis that is projections of the dermis composed of connective tissue that interwines with epidermal ridges to interlock the epidermis to the dermis
chondroblasts within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
edema occurs when areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area
what are three main components of connective tissue ground substance, fibers, and cells
adipose tissue characteristics nutrient storage insulating layer, help to reduce heat through skin protective function around some of the major organs
epithelial tissue characteristics cells are closely packed together one side not in contact with other cells lack blood vessels obtain nourishment through diffusion
What is the first step in tissue repair? Inflammation which causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable
mesenchymal cells commonly found in embryonic connective tissue adult stem cells traditionally found in the bone marrow important for maintenance and repair of bone
melanomas tumors that orginate in the pigment producing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis often resembles moles
The shock-absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of fibrocartilage... T or F True
The role of brown fat is to warm the body; the role white fat is to store nutrients... T or F True
Tendons and ligaments are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue.. T or F False
Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues... T or F True
Cartilage tissues tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue.. T or F True
Blood is considered a type of connective tissue.. T or F True
Muscle tissue functions highly cellular and well vascularized posture and body support locomotion heat production
Tissue types muscle epithelial connective nervous
epithelial membrane consists of a continuous sheet of cells, one or more layers thick, which is attached to the underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane
endocrine glands ductless release chemical substance hormones directly into the bloodstream or tissues of the body
exocrine glands release chemical substances through ducts to outside the body or onto another surface within the body
cell types in areolar connective tissue loose connective tissue that consists of a meshwork of collagen, elastic tissue , and reticular fibres fibroblast macrophages mast cells white blood cells
function of pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelial protection; involved in movement of mucus across surface by ciliary action
simple columnar inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus
hierarchy of organisms organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere
What is the nose made of septum is made of cartilage shape of nose is determined by the ethmoid bone
glycosaminoglycan any of a group of compounds occurring chiefly as components of connective tissue ground substance that are able to attract and absorb water negatively charged and hydrophillic complex polysaccharides containing amino groups
anatomy of the periosteum consists of the outer fibrous layer and inner cambium layer thick fibrous membrane covering the entire external surface of the bone except for the articular cartilage on the epiphyses
All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structures and function... T or F True
Function of the Epiphyseal plate also called the growth plate, growing tissue near the ends of the long bones in children and adolescents
Functions of hair plexus forms a network around a hair follicle and is a receptor sends and receives nerve impulses to and from the brain when the hair moves
Integumentary system functions main function is to act like a barrier to protect the body from the outside world retain body fluids, protect against diseases, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temp
Receptors found in the dermis nerve fibers sensory nerve touch receptors motor nerve fibers Meissner's corpuscle pacinian corpuscle ruffini corpuscle the hair and root plexus number of free nerve ending types
Potential life threat situations of third degree burns involves all 3 layers of the skin carry the most risk of complications like infections shock tetanus hypothermia extent of skin damage can have painful effects for months/years
Important factors influencing hair growth age health diet hormones seasonal changes climate trauma, stress and anxiety can also affect growth
periosteum a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints
cell types found in dermis stratum basale-keratinoctyes stratum spinosum- epidermal dendritic cells stratum granulosum- 3 to 5 layers of keratinoctyes stratum lucidum- only found in thick skin of hands and feet stratum corneum
Dendritic cells antigen presenting cells of the mammalian immune system main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system act as messengers between innate and the adaptive immune sys
What is an osteoid? unmineralized, organic portion of the bone matrix that forms prior to maturation of bone tissue
Do newborns have yellow bone marrow? No because at birth all bone cavities contain only red marrow and with age more and more will convert to yellow
What is bone lamella? part of the osteon that contains collagen fibers mature bone insheets layer of bone connective tissue, forms concentric rings
How are bones classified? according to the shape, long- greater in length than width short- length equal to width flat- thin surfaces made for muscle attachment irregular, sesamoid and sutural
what is Porphyria? disorders resulting from buildup of certain chemicals related to red blood cell proteins leads to darkening of skin and sensitivity to light
What are the layers of skin? epidermis-outermost dermis- contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands subcutaneous- fat and connective tissue
Characteristics of strata granulosum helps prevent water loss contains the only cells of the epidermis that can divide via the process of mitosis to bind intermediate keratin filaments together that gives the skin strength and almost waterproof
How does cartilage grow (2 ways)? Appositional growth- chondroblasts surround the perichondrium and make new cartilage by secreting matrix Interstitial growth- chondrocytes from within divide and secrete matrix
What is hematopoiesis? the production of all types of blood cells including formation, development, and differentiation of blood cells
What bones created by intramembranous ossification process? bone growth within a membrane-the mesachyme is the source of these bones produces the flat bones of the face, most of the cranial bones and a good deal of the clavicles
chondroblasts derived from the mesenchymal cells that secrete the major component of the cartilage matrix and turns into chondrocytes ex: the extracellular matrix
chondrocytes function mainly in the diffusion of nutrients and other substances and the repair of the matrix when they become less active in producing ECM
Apocrine sweat glands and their modifications apical membrane around a portion of glandular cell cytoplasm pinches off and becomes secretions include ciliary glands in the eyelids ceruminous glands-produce ear wax mammary glands-produce milk
What stimulates secretion of sebum? androgens such as testosterone excreted by sebaceous gland
What embryotic layer are fingernails formed of? derived from epidermal epithelium that formed as epidermis invaginated into the dermis hair and nails both composed of primarily dead keratinized epithelial cells
What muscle attached to hair follicle for goosebumps? arrector pili muscles contract and pull the hair erect
Other than genetic relationship between mother and son, What is onset of male pattern baldness? the presence of high level testosterone
Compare and contrast the 2 types of bone formation intramembranous-form without first being formed into cartilage endochondral-first modeled from hyaline cartilage
Explain the steps in the healing of bone fractures Hematoma formation fibrocartilaginous callus formation bony callus formation bone remodeling
Functions of connective tissues binding and support protection insulation transportation
modes of secretion merocrine-secreted by exocytosis holocrine-secreted by the rupture of gland cells
layers of the epidermis from deepest to most superficial stratum basale stratum spinosum stratum granulosum stratum lucidum stratum corneum
adipose connective tissue similar to areolar with closely packed adipoctyes reserve food stores insulates against heat loss found under skin fat deposits serve nutrients white-fat brown-found in newborns
reticular connective tissue loose ground substance with reticular fibers lies in fiber network forms a soft internal skeleton or stroma supports other cell types found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the spleen
stratified squamous multiple layers, upper layers of flattened cells
stratified cuboidal 2 or more layers, cells as tall as wide
stratified columnar 2 or more layers of tall, narrow cells
transitional multiple layers of cells that change shape when stretched
cell types of epidermis keratinocytes melanocytes langerhans' cells merkel cells
Primary germ layers of embryo ectoderm-dorsal and external surfaces of the embryo mesoderm-middle layer endoderm-innermost germ layer when the embryo undergoes shape changes
dysplasia abnormal tissue development
3 major types of skin cancer basal cell carcinoma-least malignant and most common squamous cell carcinoma-scalp, ears and lower lip melanoma-cancer of melanocytes, most dangerous
melanoma characteristics (ABCD) asymmetry border color-black, brown, tan, sometimes red diameter- larger 6 mm
first degree burns epidermis is damaged localized redness, swelling and pain
2nd degree burns epidermis and upper regions of dermis same as first but blisters appear over 25% of the body
3rd degree burns entire thickness of the skin burn areas appear gray-white, no initial edema or pain over 10 % of the body
gangrene necrosis of the soft tissues of a body part due to diminished or obstructed arterial blood supply to the region
onychomycosis fungal infection that occurs in nails constantly exposed to warmth and moisture
hair growth and replacement anagen phase-hair bulb are rapiding growing, dividing and transforming to hair catagen phase-brief regression period where cell division ceases and hair follicle undergoes involution telogen phase-where the hair is shed
psoriasis chronic autoimmune skin disease that has periods of flare ups and remissions throughout a person's lifetime
classification of bones axial skeleton appendicular skeleton
function of bones support movement protection mineral storage blood cell formation
chemical composition of bone (organic) osteoblasts-bone forming osteocytes-mature bone cells osteoclasts-large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix osteoid-unmineralized bone matrix
process of endochondral ossification 1-fetal hyaline cartilage model develops 2-cartilage calcifies and a periosteal bone collar forms 3-1st ossification center forms in the diaphysis 4-2nd ossification centers forms in the epiphyses 5-bone replaces almost all cartilage 6-continues
growth hormone stimulates liver to produce the hormone IGF which causes cartilage proliferation at epiphyseal plate and resulting bone elongation
thyroid hormone stimulates bone growth by stimulating metabolic rate of osteoblasts
calcitonin promotes calcium deposition in bone and inhibits osteoclast activity
parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels by encouraging bone resorption by osteoclasts
colles fracture distal end of the lateral forearm bone/dinner fork deformity
comminuted fracture bone is splintered into several small pieces between the main parts
compound fracture broken ends of the bone protrude through the skin
compression fracture bone is squashed
greenstick fracture partial fracture
pott fracture distal ends of the fibula and tibia
transverse fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone
fracture repair 1-fracture hematoma forms from the clotted blood 2-fibrocartilaginous callus forms/last 3 weeks 3-hard bony callus forms/continue to grow for several months 4-the bone is remodeled
skull bones 22 bones/cranial 8 and facial 14
vertebral bones 26 bones/ cervical 7 thoracic 12 and lumbar 5 sacrum 1 coccyx 1
thoracic cage 25 bones
cleft lip incomplete fusion of upper jaw components of the developing embryo, resulting in a split upper lip extending from the mouth to the side of one nostril
plagiocephaly asymmetric head shape, where one part of the skull usually frontal or occipital region has an oblique flattening
sexual dimorphism human female and male skulls display some obvious differences in general shape and size
kyphosis is an exaggerated thoracic curvature that is directed posteriorly producing a hunchback look
lordosis exaggerated lumbar curvature, often called swayback, has a protrusion of the abdomen and buttocks
scoliosis most common spinal curvature deformity
sex differences in pelvis most reliable indicator of sex, primarily the ossa coxae- due to the demands of pregnancy and child birth
development of skeleton week 4-upper and lower limb buds form week 5-hand plate forms week 6- digital rays appear in hand plate. foot plate forms week 7-notching develops between digital rays of hand and foot plates week 8- separate fingers and toes formed
types of muscle tissue cardiac smooth skeletal
classification of joints fibrous-dense regular connective tissue holds together the end of the bones cartilaginous-pad of cartilage is wedged between the end of bones synovial-ends of bones covered in articular cartilage
fibrous joint Gomphosis- peridontal hold tooth to bony jaw suture-dense regular connective tissue connects skull bones syndesmosis-dense regular connective tissue fibers between bones
cartilaginous joint synchondrosis- hyaline cartilage between bones symphysis- fibrocartilage pad between bones
synovial joint types plane joint hinge joint pivot joint condylar joint saddle joint ball and socket joint
lever is an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point
biomechanics applying mechanical principles to biology
first class lever has a fulcrum in the middle, between the effort and the resistance ex: scissors/effort at handle, resistance at cutting end
second class lever between the fulcrum and the applied effort ex: wheelbarrow/load weight is resistance, handle is effort
third class lever when the effort is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum ex: tweezers/effort is where hands are placed, resistance is at end
flexion movement in an anterior - posterior plane of the body that decreases the angle between the bones
extension movement in an anterior-posterior plane that increases the angle between the articulating bones
abduction means, "move away", away from the body midline
adduction means "move toward" the body midline
dislocation a joint injury which the articulating bones have separated, common in the shoulder
intertrochanteric fracture femoral neck occur distally to or outside the hip joint capsule fractures are extracapsular
subcapital fracture femoral neck occur within the hip articular capsule
sprain stretching or tearing of ligaments, without fracture or dislocation of the joint
pott fracture foot is overeverted, pulls on the deltoid ligament, very strong and doesn't tear
arthritis group of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints that occur in various forms
osteoarthritis most common type of arthritis chronic degenerative joint condition also known as wear and tear arthritis
epithelial tissue protection excretion secretion sensation absorption
simple epithelial simple squamous cuboidal epithelial columnar epithelial simple 1 row of cells lining of blood vessels
compound epithelial more than 1 row of cells found in stomach and intestine helps with secretion
layers of epithelial tissue ectoderm mesoderm endoderm
osteoporosis degenerative disease in which bones become weak and brittle reduced mass makes bones weak
what types of muscles smooth-hollow organs/stomach, bowel- like blood vessels/walls cardiac-only in heart/ cardiac cells-help heart beat skeletal-attached to tendons or aponorosis-body move
external oblique not connected to a tendon but connected to fibrous tissues
involuntary muscle smooth and cardiac-slow speed smooth muscles looks like an eye and 1 nuclei cardiac cell has a nuclei and sometimes 2/branched/striated
voluntary muscle skeletal-fast speed, has multiple nuclei, straight not branched striated
simple squamous single layer of flat cells diffusion, flitration air sacs in lungs
simple cuboidal one layer tall as wide absorption and secretion thyroid gland follicles, kidney tubules
simple columnar one layer tall and narrow absorption and secretion lining of most digestive tract
What are striations? stretch marks- skin is overstretched and some collaged fibers are torn
Created by: vtlove116