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Sociology exam #1

Chapters 1-2

Sociology scientific study of social behavior and human groups
sociological imagination awareness of relationship between an individual and wider society
sociological imagination key element ability to view one's society as an outsider rather than personal experiences and cultural biases
social sciences emphasizes the influence that groups can have on peoples behavior and attitudes
theories examine relationships between observations or data
Auguste Comte (1798- 1857) French philosopher most influential in the early 1800s to improve we need theoretical science systematic investigation of behaviors
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) macro English sociologist gave attention to social class distinctions and factors of gender and race
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) English Scholar applied concept of evolution, "natural"
Emile Durkeim (1858-1917) global pioneered work on suicide, suicide rates varied from different countries led what he calls Anomie
Anomie loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective
Max Weber (1864-1920) meso taught the need for insight in intellectual work should employ Verstehan
Verstehan German word for understanding or insight subjective meanings people attach to their actions
ideal type (max Weber) construct or model for evaluating specific cases
Karl Max (1818-1883) importance of economy and social conflict Communist Manifesto felt society was divided between 2 classes that clashed
communist Manifesto reflects an attempt to explain the goals of the Communism, as well as theory underlying this movement
W.E.B. Dubois advocated the usefulness of both basic and applied research in combating prejudice and racial tolerance believed that knowledge was essential for this researched lives of blacks importance of religion in society
Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) Looked at smaller units-intimate, face to face seedbeds of society
Jane Addams (1860-1935) Hull House goal of assisting the under-privileged and creating a egalitarian society
Robert Merton (1910-2003) combined theory and research in different ways in which people attempt to achieve success to crime rate emphasized that sociology should strive to bring together macro and micro levels
Pierre Bourdieu ( 1903-2002) French sociologist who wrote about how capital in its many forms sustains individuals and families from one generation to the next
cultural capital noneconomic goods such as family background and education
social capital collective benefit of social networks, built on reciprocal trust
double consciousness (W.E.B. Dubois) division of an individual identity into 2 or more social realities
macrosociology (R. Merton) sociological investigation that concentrates on a large scale phenomena-entire organization
microsociology stresses the study of small groups often through experimental means
mesosociology intermediate level of sociological analysis that focuses on formal organization and social move
global sociology level of sociological analysis, compares between entire nations, using entire societies as units of analysis
Functionalist Perspective emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain it's stability think of society as a living organism in which each part contributes to survival
Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) saw any society as a vast network of connected parts to maintain the system
Niklas Luhmann if it don't contribute to society then it will not pass down to the next generation
key concepts of Functionalist perspectives Manifest functions latent functions dysfunction
manifest functions open, stated, and conscious functions
latent functions unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes
dysfunction element or process of a society that may disrupt the social system or reduce its stability
Conflict Perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources continual sturggle
conflict perspective key Inequality capitalism stratification
The Marxist View how society's institutions including family, gov, religion, education, and the media, may help maintain the privileges and other subservient
Feminist Perspective macro sociological approach that views inequality in gender as central to all behavior
Ida Wells-Barnett (1862-1931) advocate in the women's rights campaign what it meant to be black
intersectionalities privilege or lack of privilege is determined by multiple social factors as gender, age, race, sexual orientation, and religion
Patricia Hill Collins she drew attention to intersectionalities
Queer Theory study of society from the perspective of a broad spectrum of sexual identities, including hetero, homo and bi
Eve Sedgwick any analysis of society is incomplete if it doesn't include the spectrum of sexual identities
Interactionist Perspective micro generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
interactionism sociological framework which human beings are viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects
non verbal communication sending messages through the use of gestures, facial expressions, and postures
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) founder of the dramaturgical approach
Dramaturgical Approach view of social interactions in which people are seen as theatrical Erving Goffman (1922-1982) popularized the approach
The Sociological Approach choice of what to study, how to study it, and what questions to pose or not pose
Applied Sociology use of discipline of sociology with specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
Clinical sociology use of discipline with specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions
medical sociology how health care professionals and patients deal with diseases
environmental sociology examine relationships human societies and physical environment
basic sociology inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamentals
globalization worldwide integration of gov policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets
social inequality condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
Sociological research Patricia Adler Book," The tender Cut"
conflict theorists unconventional behavior marginalizes them
interactionists critical nature of self-injurers interpersonal contacts, in person and often online
feminist/queer gender or sexual orientation differences in self injurers
Whatever perspectives one crucial requirement imaginative responsible research that meets the highest scientific and ethical standards
Scientific method systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in research of a problem defining the problem reviewing the Literature formulating the hypothesis collecting and analyzing data developing the conclusion
1-Defining the problem state as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate
operational definition explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough
2-Reviewing the literature examining relevant scholarly studies and info refine the problem under study clarify possible techniques eliminate avoidable mistakes
3-Formulating the hypothesis hypothesis variable independent variable dependent variable casual logic correlation
hypothesis speculative statement of 2 or more factors
variable measurable trait or characteristic, subject to change
independent variable variable hypothesized to cause or influence another
dependent variable depends on influence of the independent variable
casual logic relationship between a condition or variable
correlation between 2 variables a change in one coincides
4-Collecting and Analyzing data sample random sample validity reliability
sample selection from larger population that represents that population
random sample every member being studied has the same chance
validity degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects
reliability extent to which a measure produces consistent results
5-Developing the conlcusion does data support the hypothesis
control variable factor held constant to test relative impact of independent variable
research design a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
surveys study in form of interview or questionnaire provides info about how people think and act quantitative research qualitative research
interview researchers obtains info through face to face, phone, or online
questionaire printed or written form used to obtain info from respondent
quantitative research collects and reports data primarily in numeric form
qualitative research relies on what is seen in the field
ethnography study of an entire social setting through extended systematic fieldwork
observation direct participation in closely watching a group or organization
Barbara Ehrenreich Nickel and dimed this approach is called a participant observation and sociologist joins the group
William F. Whyte he moved to a low income neighborhood and became circle of the corner boys
experiment artificially created a situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables experimental group control group Hawthorne effect
experimental group subjects in an experiment exposed to an independent variable
control group subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable
Hawthorne effect unintended influence that observers of an experiment can have on their subjects conducted at the Hawthorne plant in the 1920s and 1930s
visual Sociology the use of photographs, film, and video to study society
secondary analysis variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible info and data
content analysis systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale
Code of Ethics part 1 standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession 1-maintain objectivity and integrity 2-respect subject's right to privacy and dignity 3-protect subjects from personal harm 4-preserve confidentiality
code of ethics part 2 5-seek informed consent when data are collected from research participants or when behavior occurs in private context 6-acknowledge research collab and assistance 7-disclose all sources of financial support (ASA)
confidentiality may, 1993-Rik Scarce argued that led to federal legislation is needed to clarify the right of scholars and members of the press to preserve confidentiality of those they interview
Conflict of interest accepting funds can question a researcher's objectivity and integrity
value neutrality Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data
Feminist Methodology 2 spheres-work and leisure, paid and unpaid 85% of self injurers society encourages more than men to attend to their bodies
queer theory and methodology veiled reporting technique respondents are asked whether they consider themselves heterosexual
The data-rich future applying sociology initiating policy -1987 proposed and 1991 was forbidded
Kinsey report comprehensive study of sexual behavior
using Statistics percentage-portion of 100 mean-average mode-common value in a series median-midpoint
reading graphs cross-tabulation table or matrix that shows the relationship between 2 or more variables
Created by: vtlove116



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