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Chapter 2

Basic Chemistry

TermDefinition
molecule the smallest particle of a substance that has all the properties of the substance
atom the basic unit of matter
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mass the amount of material an object has
diversity differing from one another
organization the arrangement of parts into a whole
molecular related to molecules
chemistry the study of matter and how it changes
chemical process a rearrangement of atoms or molecules to produce one or more new substances with new properties
bacteria the simplest single cells that carry out all basic life activities
physical property a characteristic of a substance or an object that can be observed without changing the substance into a different substance
chemical property a characteristic that describes how a substance changes into a different substance
element a substance that cannot be separated into other kinds of substances
chemical reaction a chemical change in which elements are combined or rearranged
chemical bond the force holding atoms together in a compound or molecule
element symbol one, two, or three letters that represent the name of an element
compound a substance that is formed when atoms of two or more elements join together
subatomic particle a proton, neutron, or other particle smaller than the atom
nucleus an atom's center; made of protons and neutrons
electron a tiny particle in an atom that moves around the nucleus; it has a negative charge
proton a tiny particle in the nucleus of an atom; it has a positive electrical charge
neutron a tiny particle in the nucleus of an atom; it has the same mass as the proton, and no electrical charge
electron cloud the space effectively occupied by electrons in an atom
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass the average mass of the atom of an element
isotope one of a group of atoms of an element with the same number of protons and electrons by different numbers of neutrons
radioactive the property of some elements or isotopes to give off energy as they change to another substance over time
radioisotope a radioactive isotope
chemical formula a set of symbols and subscripts that tell the kinds of atoms and how many of each kind are in a compund
ion an atom that has either a positive or a negative charge
ionic compund two or more ions held next to each other by electrical attraction
empirical formula the simplest formula for a compound
radical a group of two or more atoms that acts like one atom
binary compund a compound that contains two elements
electron shell a specific energy level which electrons orbit the nucleus
covalent bond a bond resulting from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms
reactant a substance that is altered in a chemical reaction
product a substance that is formed in a chemical reaction
polar molecule a molecule with an uneven distribution of electron density
hydrogen bond a weak electrical attraction between the slight positive charge on a hydrogen atom and a slight negative charge on another atom.
solvent a substance capable of dissolving one or more other substances
hydrophillic water-loving; polar molecules are hydrophillic
crystalline a substance with a regularly repeating arrangement of its atoms
hydrophobic water-hating; nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic
acid a substance that can donate a proton or accept and electron
base a substance that can accept a proton or donate and electron
pH a number that tells whether a substance is an acid or a base
neutral solution a solution that has a pH of 7; it is neither an acid nor a base
buffer a solution that can receive moderate amounts of either acid or base without significant change in its pH
ionic bond a type of bonding in which ions are held together by the strong attraction of their opposite charges
Created by: mrspuffisphat21