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Chapter 5

Eukaryotic Cells

TermDefinition
bilayer two layers
plasma membrane the membrane that surrounds a cell and separates it from the environment
fluid mosaic model a plasma membrane model where proteins float freely through the phospholipid bilayer
transport protein a protein in the plasma membrane that helps move molecules across the membrane
extracellular matrix a sticky coating outside the plasma membrane of animal cells that joins cells together
cytoplasm the area inside a cell; contains organelles and cytosol
cytosol the fluid base of the cytoplasm; contains molecules used and made by the cell
passive transport the movement of molecules across a membrane when the movement requires no energy
facilitated diffusion passive transport that involves membrane proteins
active transport the movement of molecules across a membrane when the movement requires energy
endocytosis a process in which a cell membrane surrounds and encloses a substance to bring the substance into the cell
exocytosis a process in which a substance is released from a cell through a pouch that transports the substance to the cell surface
gap junction connections between cells made for support and communication
nuclear envelope the membrane surrounding the nucleus of a cell
pore a hole in the nuclear envelope used to send and receive messages
nucleolus a ball of fibers in the nucleus that makes ribosomes
ribosome an information organelle that uses the instructions in DNA to make a protein
genome the entire DNA found in a cell
chromosome a structure in the nucleus made of individual DNA molecules folded and coiled together with proteins
chloroplast an energy organelle in plants that harvests energy from the sun
mitochondion an energy organelle that converts energy from bonds in glucose into ATP
chlorophyll a molecule in chloroplasts that traps energy from sunlight
photosynthesis a process that chloroplasts use to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in glucose
stroma the thick fluid inside chloroplasts
thylakoid a membrane sac that contains chlorophyll
grana stacks of thylakoids inside chloroplasts
cellular respiration the process in which cells break down food to release energy
matrix a thick fluid inside mitochondria
cristae the folded layers of the inner membrane inside mitochondria
endomembrane system a group of organelles that help a cell make and use different molecules
endoplasmic reticulum an organelle that make different molecules
secrete to make and then give off
golgi apparatus an organelle made of stacked membrane sacs that makes final changes to and packages molecules make in the cell
vacuole a membrane sac that transports and stores molecules
lysosome a membrane sac with special enzymes used to break down large molecules
cytoskeleton a group of fibers running throughout the inside of a cell that supports the cell and helps the cell move
microfilament a long cytoskeleton fiber used to move the cell
actin a ball-shaped protein used to make microfilaments
intermediate filament a rod-like cytoskeleton fiber used to strengthen the cell's shape; organelles anchor themselves to these rods
microtubule a tube-like cytoskeleton fiber used by organelles to move around
tubulin a ball-shaped protein used to make the hollow tube structure of microtubules
cilia small, hair-like structures made of microtubules; found on the outside of some cells to aid in movement
flagella long, tail -like structures made of microtubules; found on the outside of some cells to aid in movement
cell wall the rigid layer of cellulose outside the plasma membrane of plant cells
plasmodesmata openings in the cell wall used for communication and transport of molecules
central vacuole large membrane sac in the center of a plant cell used for water storage
Created by: mrspuffisphat21