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Science EOG Review

5th Grade EOG

TermDefinition
abiotic factor all the non living things in an ecosystem
acceleration A change in speed or direction
acquired trait a characteristic that a living thing gets during its lifetime
action the force one object applied to a second object
adaptation A characteristic that enables a living thing to survive in its environment.
air mass a huge body of air having relatively uniform temperature and humidity and covering hundreds or thousands of square kilos
air pressure the weight of air pressing down on an area
air resistance the force of friction that acts between a moving object and air particles
algae a type of aquatic producer
anemometer measures wind speed
aquatic Water ecosystems such as marine
atmoshpere Air that surrounds the earth. Four layers: thermoshpere
balanced forces equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
barometer an instrument used to measure air pressure
behavior a way in which a living thing acts or responds to its surroundings
biome A large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animals communities
biotic factor all the living things in an ecosystem
boiling liquid to a gas
carbon cycle the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back
cardiovascular system consists of the heart
carnivore organism that obtains energy by eating animals
carrying capacity The largest population that an area can support.
cell the smallest part of a living thing that can carry out all the processes of life
chemical change a change of matter that occurs when atoms link together in a new way and form a new substance
chemical property the ability of a material to react with other materials in a certain way
chlorophyll A green chemical in plant cells that allows plants to use the Sun's energy for making food.
circulatory system A transport system for many substances and interacts with the respiratory and other systems; carries oxygen
cirrus cloud A high-altitude cloud with a featherlike shape
climate the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
climax community The last or final stage of succession in a community
cloud a collection of small water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air
cold front the front edge of a moving mass of cold air that pushes beneath a warmer air mass like a wedge
commensalism a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
community all of the populations of different species that live and interact in an area
competition the demand for a resource by two or more organisms
condensation the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
conduction the passing of heat from one item to the next through touch
conductor a material through which heat can move easily
conifer evergreen
conserve to save by using carefully
consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
convection the flow of heat through a liquid or a gas
Coriolis effect The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
cumulonimbus clouds that bring thunderstorms and develop upward
cumulus cloud big
current a flow of air or water in a certain direction
deciduous a name for trees which lose their leaves every year
decomposer organism that breaks down the wastes or remains of other organisms
density the amount of matter in a given space
desert A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
difference of air pressure is great wind moves quickly
difference of air pressure is small wind moves slowly
digestive system breaks down food into smaller pieces that can be used by your cells
direction the path that a moving object follows
dissolve to mix evenly in a liquid
distance-time graph a line graph that shows an object's motion
distance speed x time
downdraft a rapidly moving current of cool air that flows downward in a thunderstorm
ecological succession the change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic and biotic factors
ecology The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment
ecosystem all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area
El Nino an unusual warming of surface water in the eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator
elevation the height of land above sea level
energy pyramid a diagram that shows how the amount of energy changes as it moves through a food chain or food web
energy the ability to do work
estuary A habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
evaporation the water cycle process by which a liquid changes into a gas
evergreen a tree that does not lose its leaves in the winter
fog cloud at ground level
fog droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground
food chain A diagram which shows the flow of energy from organism to organism.
food web network of all the food chains in an ecosystem
force a push or pull exerted on an object
forest an ecosystem that contains many trees
freezing liquid to solid
fresh water water that contains little to no salt
friction a force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
front (meteorology) the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses
fungi the familiar molds and mushrooms which help decompose dead organisms
gas does not take up a definite amount of space and has no definite shape
global wind patterns Winds are named by the direction from which they blow. The globe is encircled by six major wind belts
grasslands a biome where grass and not trees are the main plant life. example prairies
gravity the force that pulls objects toward earth
groundwater water held in rocks and soil below the surface
Gulf Stream a warm ocean current in the Atlantic Ocean
habitat the place where an organism lives
herbivore organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
high pressure system generally brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes
high pressure cool heavy air sinks
host an organism on which a parasite lives
humidity amount of water vapor in the air
hurricane a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73-136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)
hygrometer measures humidity
inertia the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion.
inherited traits distinguished characteristics passed down from parents to offspring
insolation The solar radiation (energy from the sun) that reaches Earth.
insulator a material that heat does not move through easily
interact to come into contact with and affect each other
jet stream an air current in the upper atmosphere that flows from west to east
La Nina an unusual cooling of surface water in the eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator
land breeze movement of air from land to sea at night
latitude the distance north or south of the equator
learned behavior a skill that an animal develops after it is born
limiting factor any factor in the environment that limits the size of a population
liquid no definite shape and takes up definite amount of space
low pressure system Pressure system with counterclockwise and inward winds that brings cloudiness and stormy weather
low pressure warm light air rises
mass how much matter or how heavy something is
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
melting solid to liquid
meteorologist A scientist who studies weather
momentum the product of a body's mass and its velocity
motion an object's change in position
mountain breeze this dense
multicellular made up of more than one cell; consists of specialized cells
muscular system the body system that is made up of all the muscles attached to bones
mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
nervous system control and communication network of the body
niche organism's role
nimbus cloud from which rain is falling
nitrogen cycle The movement of nitrogen gas from compounds in the soil to the air.
occluded front when a warm air mass is moving between two cold air masses
ocean a large body of salt water
omnivore an animal that eats both plants and animals
organism Any living thing
ozone layer a layer of ozone gas in the atmoshpere that screens out much of the Sun's UV rays
parasite an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
parasitism the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
permafrost layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
photosynthesis process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
physical change a change of matter in size
physical property a feature that can be observed with the senses or measured with a tool
pioneer species the first species to populate an area
polar zone at high latitudes winters are long and cold; summers are short and warm; precipitation all year is low
population group of the same kind of organism living in a certain place
position The location of an object
precipitation the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
predator animal that hunts and eats other animals
prevailing westerlies winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. They originate from the high-pressure areas and move towards the poles
prey animal hunted or caught for food
primary consumer an herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae.
producer an organism that makes its own food
qualitative data you can see
quantitative data you can measure
radiation the transfer of heat through magnetic waves
rain gauge a weather instrument that measures the amount of precipitation
rainforest an area of lush vegetation and year-round rainfall
reaction (mechanics) the equal and opposite force that is produced when any force is applied to a body
reservoir a storage area for fresh water supplies
respiratory system allows our bodies to obtain oxygen from the air
run off water from rain or melted snow that flows along Erath's surface into bodies of water
salt marsh coastal wetlands that are flooded and drained by salt water brought in by the tides
scavenger a carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
sea breeze movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land
secondary consumer A member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores
skeletal system the body system of bones that give the body structure and support
solid definite shape and takes up definite amount of space
speed the distance an object travels in one unit of time
stationary front when two air masses meet and stop moving
stratus cloud A flat
symbiosis Any relationship in which two species live closely together
taiga a region of evergreen
temperate zone at middle latitudes summers are warm and winters are cool or cold; precipitation may be plentiful
terrestrial land-based ecosystem
tertiary consumer a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat mainly other carnivores.
thermometer a weather instrument that measures temperature
time distance/speed
trade winds a belt of winds set in motion around the Earth by air moving from high pressure zones to low pressure zones at the equator
transfer movement from one place to another
transpiration loss of water from a plant through its leaves
tropical zone near the equator; temperatures are high all year long; rainfall is plentiful
troposphere the layer closest to Earth
tundra an extremely cold
unbalanced force result when some forces acting on an object are stronger than others
unicellular organisms that reproduce and function with one cell
valley breeze the movement of air created by warm air rising and flowing up the slope of the mountain
velocity the speed of an object in a particular direction
warm front when a warm air mass meets a colder air mass and slowly rises over it
water cycle the continuous cycle of the transfer of water through an ecosystem
water vapor Water in the form of gas.
watershed the area of land that is drained by a river
weather The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
weight the force of gravity between earth and an object
wind vane a weather instrument that measures wind direction
wind the movement of air caused by the differences in air pressure
Created by: ahh1102