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Chapter 1 lecture

Describes the structures of the body Anatomy
Functions of anatomical structures Physiology
Examines large visible structures Gross or macroscopic anatomy
Exterior features Surface anatomy
Body areas Regional anatomy
Cross sections Sectional anatomy
Organ systems Systemic anatomy
Medical specialties Clinical anatomy
From conception to adulthood, including embryology Developmental anatomy
In early development cells are segregated into 4 different germ cell types Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Primordial
Examines cells and molecules Microscopic anatomy
Study of cells Cytology
Study of tissues Histology
The smallest stable units of matter Atoms
Consist of groups of atoms Molecules
Smallest living units in the body Cells
Group of cells working together Tissue
Made of two or more tissues working together Organ
Group of interacting organs Organ system
An individual life form Organism
11 organ systems Integumentary Muscular Skeletal Nervous Circulatory Lymphatic Respiratory Endocrine Urinary/excretory Reproductive Digestive
Integumentary major organs Skin Hair Sweat glands Nails
Protects against environmental hazards Helps regulate body temperature Provides sensory information Functions of integumentary system
Skeletal major organs Bones Cartilages Associated ligaments Bone marrow
Provides support and protection for other tissues Stores calcium and other minerals Forms blood cells Functions of skeletal system
Muscular major organs Skeletal muscles and associated tendons
Provides movement Provides protection and support for other tissues Generates heat that maintains body temperature Functions of muscular system
Nervous major organs Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nerves Sense organs
Directs immediate responses to stimuli Coordinates or moderates other organ systems Provides and interprets sensory information Functions of nervous system
Endocrine major organs Pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands Pancreas and gonads Endocrine tissues in other systems
Directs long-term changes in other organ systems Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use Controls many structural and functional changes during development Functions of endocrine system
Cardiovascular major organs Heart Blood Blood vessels
Distributes blood cells, water, nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide Distributes heat to control body temperature Functions of cardiovascular system
Lymphatic major organs Spleen Thymus Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Tonsils
Defends against infection and disease Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream Functions of lymphatic system
Respiratory major organs Nasal cavities Sinuses Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs Alveoli
Delivers air to alveoli Provides oxygen to bloodstream Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream Produces sounds for communication Functions of the respiratory system
Digestive major organs Teeth Tongue Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas
Processes and digests food Absorbs and conserves water Absorbs nutrients Stores energy reserves Functions of digestive system
Urinary major organs Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra
Excretes waste products from the blood Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH Functions of urinary system
Male reproductive major organs Testes Epididymides Ductus deferentia Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Penis Scrotum
Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids, and hormones Sexual intercourse Functions of male reproductive system
Female reproductive major organs Ovaries Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina Labia Clitoris Mammary glands
Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery Provides milk to nourish newborn infant Sexual intercourse Functions of female reproductive system
Locating structures on or near the body surface Surface anatomy
Anatomical posiition Hands at sides, palms forward
Supine Lying down , face down
Supine Lying down, face up
Prone Lying down, face down
A slice through a three dimensional object Section
A single view along a two dimensional flat surface Sectional plane
Vertical plane that divides body into anterior and posterior portions Frontal (coronal) plane
Vertical plane dividing body into left and right portions Sagittal
Divides body into superior and inferior portions Transverse
Protect organs from shocks and impacts Permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs Functions of body cavities
Ventral body cavity also called Coelom
Internal organs Viscera
Lines body cavities and covers organs Serious membrane (serosa)
Parietal serosa Lines cavity
Visceral serosa Covers organ
Contain right and left lungs Thoracic cavity
Cavity where heart is Pericardial
Chamber within abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal cavity
Lines the internal body wall Parietal peritoneum
Covers the organs Visceral peritoneum
Superior portion - diaphragm to top of pelvic bones Contains digestive organs Abdominal cavity
Inferior portion - medial to pelvic bones Contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder Pelvic cavity
All body systems work together to maintain a stable internal environment Homeostasis
Automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to an environmental change Auto regulation
Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems Extrinsic regulation
Limits fluctuations of internal conditions to keep them close to a set point, or desired value or normal range of values Homeostatic regulatory mechanism function
Receives the stimulus Receptor
Processes the signal and sends instructions (generally in the brain) Control center
Carries out instructions Effector
The response of the effector negates the stimulus Body brought back into homeostasis Normal range maintained Negative feedback
Initial stimulus produces a response that amplifies the original change in conditions Body is moved away from homeostasis Normal range is bit maintained A positive feedback loop completes a dangerous process quickly to reestablish homeostasis Positive feedback
Created by: jannparker