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Chapter 2 lecture

What are the subatomic particles? Protons - positive charge, 1 mass unit Neutrons - neutral (no charge), 1 mass unit Electrons - negative charge, low mass
What are the parts of atomic structure? Atomic number Nucleus Electron cloud Electron shell
Number of protons Atomic number
Contains protons and neutrons Nucleus
Spherical area that contains electrons Electron cloud
Two dimensional representation of electron cloud Electron shell
A pure substance composed of atoms of one kind Element
Versions of elements based on mass number Isotopes
Number of protons plus the number of neutrons Mass number
Average of the different atomic masses and proportions of different isotopes Atomic weight
Has a weight in grams equal to the atomic weight of the element Mole
Form molecules and compounds Chemical bonds
Two or more atoms joined by strong bonds Molecule
Two or more atoms of different elements joined by strong or weak bonds Compound
The sum of the atomic weights of its atoms Molecular weight
Involve sharing, gaining, and losing electrons Chemical bonds
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds? Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds
An atom with an electric charge Ion
Bonds that are attractions between cations (positive ions) andanions (negative ions) Ionic bonds
Strong bonds involving shared pair of electrons Covalent bonds
Equal sharing of electrons between atoms that have equal pull on the electrons Nonpolar covalent bonds
Unequal sharing of electrons bc one atom has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons. Form polar molecules - like water Polar covalent bonds
Weak polar bonds between adjacent molecules based on electrical attractions Hydrogen bonds
What are stated of matter? Solid Liquid Gas
New bonds are formed or existing bonds are broken Chemical reaction
Materials going into a reaction Reactants
Materials coming out of reaction Products
All of the reactions that are occurring at one time Metabolism
The capacity to do work Energy
Movement of an object or change in matter Work
Energy of motion Kinetic energy
Stored energy Potential energy
Potential energy stored in chemical bonds Chemical energy
Types of chemical reactions Decomposition Synthesis Exchange Reversible
Break down or break apart chemical bonds Decomposition reaction Hydrolysis
Forms or build up chemical bonds (smaller molecules becoming larger molecules) Synthesis reaction Dehydration synthesis
Involves decomposition first, then synthesis (break down something in order to make something new) Exchange reaction
The reaction can go forwards or backwards Reversible reactions
The amount of energy needed to start a reaction Activation energy
Protein catalysts that lower the activation energy of reactions Enzymes
Release energy Exergonic reaction
Absorb energy Endergonic reaction
Essential molecules obtained from food (like glucose) Nutrients
Molecules made or broken down in the body (like glycogen) Metabolites
Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and salts Inorganic compounds
Molecules containing carbon and hydrogen Organic compounds
Accounts for up to 2/3 of total body weight Produces solutions Water
Uniform mixtures of two or more substances Consists of a solvent, or liquid, and solutes Solutions
Dissolved substances Solutes
Universal solvent Reactivity High heat capacity Lubrication Polar molecule Properties of water
Inorganic ions that conduct electricity in solution Hold a positive or negative charge Imbalance seriously disturbs vital body functions Electrolytes
Interact with water Includes ions and polar molecules Hydrophilic
Do not interact with water Includes nonpolar molecules, fats, and oils Hydrophobic
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution in moles per liter Due to the presence of acid or bases Potential hydrogen (pH)
A balance of H+ and OH- Pure water = 7.0 Neutral pH
High H+ concentration Low OH- concentration Acidic pH
Low H+ concentration High OH- concentration Basic (alkaline) pH (higher than 7.0)
Ranges from 7.35 to 7.45 (slightly alkalotic or basic) pH of human blood
Has an inverse relationship with H+ concentration pH scale
Solute that dissociates into cations and anions other than hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions Salt
Identical monomers (molecules) join together to form a Polymer
Contain H, C, and usually O Are covalently bonded Contain functional groups that determine their chemistry Include carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleus acids Organic molecules
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Carbohydrates
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures (Glucose, galactose, and fructose) Isomers
Simple sugars with three to seven carbon atoms Glucose, fructose, galactose Monosaccharides (monomers of carbs)
Mainly hydrophobic molecules such as fats, oils, and waxes Made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms Include: fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids, phospholipids, glycolipids, triglycerides Lipids
Fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule Glycerides
Glycerol plus one fatty acid Monoglyceride
Glycerol plus two fatty acids Diglycerides
Glycerol plus three fatty acids Triglycerides (neutral fats)
What are the three important functions of triglycerides? Energy source Insulation Protection
Four-ringed carbon structures with an assortment of functional groups Ex: cholesterol, sex hormones, corticosteroids and calcitriol, bile salts Steroids
Both can be synthesized by our cells Contain a diglyceride attached to either a phosphate group or a sugar Generally, both have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails Structural lipids- components of plasma membranes Phospholipids and glycolipids
Most abundant and important organic molecules Contain basic elements C (carbon) H (hydrogen) O (oxygen) N (nitrogen) 20 amino acids are monomers that combine to form proteins (polymers) Proteins
What are seven major protein functions? Support- structural proteins Movement- contractile proteins Transport- transport (carrier) proteins Buffering- regulation of pH Metabolic regulation- enzymes Coordination and control- hormones Defense- antibodies
What is the protein structure? Long chains of amino acids (monomers) Each amino acid consists of: central carbon atom, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group, variable side chain, or R group
Proteins that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction Catalysts Substrates (reactants) bind to an active site on an enzyme Enzymes
Enzymes exhibit... Specificity - catalyze only one type of reaction Saturation limits - enzymes become saturated Regulation - by other cellular chemicals
An ion or molecule that bonds to an enzyme before substrates can bind Cofactors
Nonprotein organic cofactors (vitamins) Coenzymes
Change in shape and loss of functioning enzymes due to heat or pH Denaturation
Large organic molecules found in the nucleus Store and process information Nucleic acids
Determines inherited characteristics Directs protein synthesis Controls enzyme production Controls metabolism Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Controls intermediate steps in protein synthesis Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
DNA and RNA consist of long chains of nucleotides (monomers), which contain: A pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) Phosphate group Nitrogenous base (A, G, T, C, or U) Structure of nucleic acids
Called complementary strands Hydrogen bonds between opposing nitrogenous bases hold the strands together Forms a twisting double helix DNA
Consists of a single chain of nucleotides Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA
DNA base pairs Adenine (A) bonds to thymine (T) Cytosine (C) bonds to guanine (G)
RNA base pairs Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T), so adenine binds to uracil in RNA
The process of adding a phosphate group to another molecule Phosphorylation
Nucleotide that contains one phosphate group Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
Contains two phosphate groups Adenosine Diphosphate
High energy compound containing three phosphate groups Adenosine triphosohate (ATP)
Enzyme that catalyze the conversion of ATP to ADP Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
Created by: jannparker