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A&P I Chapter 4 Lect

Tissues; types, functions, and locations

What are collections of specialized cells that perform specific functions when combined form organs? Tissues
What is the study of tissues? Histology
What are the four types of tissues? Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous
Covers exposed surfaces Lines internal passageways Forms glands Epithelial tissue
Fills internal spaces Supports other tissues Transports materials Stores energy Connective tissue
Specialized for contraction Skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and muscular walls of hollow organs. Muscle tissue
Carries electrical signals from one part of the body to another Nervous tissue
Provide physical protection Control permeability Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions Functions of epithelial tissue
Polarity (apical and basal surfaces) has a top and bottom Cellularity (cell junctions) Attachment (basement membrane) Avascularity (avascular) Regeneration Characteristics of epithelia tissue
Increase absorption or secretion on apical surface Microvilli
Moves fluids on apical surface Cilia
How is classification of epithelia tissue determined? Shape Number of layers
Thin and flat, ovals or pancakes; scalelike Squamous
Square shaped Cuboidal
tall, slender rectangles Columnar
Single layer of cells Simple epithelium
Several layers of cells Stratified epithelium
Lines the lungs' air sacs (pleural cavity) Lines the heart and blood vessels (pericardial cavity) Lines the ovaries (peritoneal cavity) Lines portions of kidney tubules Simple Squamous
Surface of skin (epidermis) Lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, and vagina Stratified Squamous
Glands, ducts, portions of kidney tubules, thyroid gland Simple Cuboidal
Lining of some ducts Sweat glands, conjunctiva of eye, male urethra Stratified Cuboidal
Lines urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureters Stretches Transitional epithelial tissue
Lining of stomach, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of kidneys Simple columnar epithelium
Lining of nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Small areas of pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary gland ducts, and urethra Stratified Columnar epithelium
Epithelial cells that produce secretions Glands
Release hormones into bloodstream Endocrine glands
Produce exocrine secretions Discharge secretions through ducts onto epithelial surfaces Exocrine glands
Specialized cells Extracellular protein fibers Fluid called ground substance Components of connective tissue
Connect, support, and bind body structures together Connective tissue
What are the primary types of connective tissue? Loose connective Dense connective
More ground substance, fewer fibers ie adipose tissue (fat) Loose connective
More fibers, less ground substance ie tendons Dense connective
The most abundant cell type Found in all types of connective tissue proper Secrete proteins and hyaluronan (cellular cement) Fibroblasts
Second most abundant cell type Maintain connective tissue fibers Fibrocytes
Fat cells Each cell stores a single, large fat droplet Adipocytes
Stem cells that respond to injury or infection Mesenchymal cells
Synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin Melanocytes
Large white blood cells Eats pathogens and damaged cells Macrophages
Stimulate inflammation after injury or infection Release histamine and heparin Mast cells
What are the three connective tissue fibers? Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers
Most common fibers in connective tissue Long, straight, and unbranched Strong and flexible Tendons and ligaments Collagen fibers
Form network of interwoven fibers (stroma) Strong and flexible Stabilize functional cells and structures Sheaths around organs Reticular fibers
Contain elastin Branched and wavy Return to original length after stretching Ligaments of vertebrae Elastic fibers
Clear, colorless, viscous Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen movement Ground substance
"Packing materials" Fill spaces between organs, cushion cells, and support epithelia Loose connective tissues
What are the three types of connective tissues in adults? Areolar tissue Adipose tissue Reticular tissue
Subcutaneous layer of skin, between muscles, around joints, blood vessels, and nerves. Cushions organs and provides support Areolar tissue
Deep to the skin esp at sides, butt, and breasts. Provides padding and cushions shocks (fat) Adipose tissue
Found in liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Provides supporting framework Reticular tissue
What are the three types of dense connective tissues? Dense regular Dense irregular Elastic
Tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers. Between skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments Provides firm attachments Conducts pull of muscles Stabilizes position of bones Dense regular connective tissue
Capsules of visceral organs, nerve and muscle sheaths, and dermis Provides strength to resist forces from many directions Helps prevent overexpansion of organs, ie urinary bladder Dense irregular connective tissue
Made of elastic fibers Between vertebrae and blood vessel walls Stabilizes positions of vertebrae and penis Cushions shocks Permits expansion and contraction of organs Elastic tissue
Type of fluid connective tissue Contains plasma Contains rbc, wbc, and platelets Blood
Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Does not have nucleus Gives blood its color Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Defend body from infection and disease Leukocytes (white blood cells)
Membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that function in blood clotting Platelets
What are the three types of cartilage? Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage
Most common type Tough and somewhat flexible Reduces friction between bones Synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea, nasal septum Hyaline cartilage
Supports but bends easily External ear and epiglottis Elastic cartilage
Very durable and tough Limits movement Prevents bone to bone contact Around joints, between pubic bones, and between spinal vertebrae. Fibrocartilage
Firm gel that contains cells called chondrocytes Matrix
For weight support Calcified Resists shattering Contains cells called Osteocytes Bone (osseous tissue)
What are the three types of muscle tissue? Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle
Large muscles responsible for body movement Striated voluntary Skeletal muscle
Found only in heart Striated involuntary Cardiac muscle
Found in walls of hollow, contracting organs Nonstriated involuntary Smooth muscle
What type of tissue is specialized for conducting electrical impulses and concentrated in the brain and spinal cord? Nervous tissue
What types of cells are in nervous tissue? Neurons Neuroglia (supporting cells)
Cell body Dendrites Axon (nerve fiber) Parts of neuron
What are the two stages tissues respond to injury? Inflammation Regeneration (to restore normal function)
Created by: jannparker