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Lower Extremity

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Psoas Major origin? Transverse processes and vertebral bodies of T12-L5
Psoas Major insertion? Lesser trochanter
Psoas Major action? -Hip flexion -Some hip adduction and Medial rotation
Psoas Major nerve? L1-L3 from Lumbar Plexus
Iliacus origin? Iliac fossa, iliolumbar and sacroiliac ligaments
Iliacus insertion? Lesser trochanter
Iliacus action ? -Hip flexion -Some lateral rotation
iliacus nerve? Femoral L2, L3
Sartorius (Tailor's muscle) origin? Anterior superior iliac spine
Sartorius (Tailor's muscle) Insertion? Inferior to medial condyle of tibia
Sartorius (Tailor's muscle) Action? -Flexion, abduction, lateral rotation of hip -Flexion of knee
Sartorius (Tailor's muscle) Nerve ? Femoral
Tensor fascia latea origin? Anterior iliac crest
Tensor fascia latea Insertion? Greater trochanter and lateral tibia (Gerdy’s tubercle) via iliotibial band
Tensor fascia latea Action? -Hip flexion, abduction and medial rotation -Stabilizes knee laterally by tensing iliotibial tract
Tensor fascia latea Nerve? Superior gluteal
Pectineus origin? Pubic bone
Pectineus insertion? Pectineal line on femur
Pectineus Action? -Hip adduction -Hip flexion
Pectineus Nerve? ½ Femoral ½ obturator
Rectus femoris origin? Anterior inferior iliac spine
Rectus femoris insertion? Tibial tuberosity
Rectus femoris action? -Hip flexion -Knee extension
Rectus femoris nerve? Femoral
Gluteus Maximus origin? Sacrum & coccyx, ilium
Gluteus Maximus insertion? -Gluteal line/tuberosity -iliotibial band
Gluteus Maximus action? Extension, lateral rotation of hip; abduction (upper portion); horizontal abduction -reverse O.I action: Posterior tilt
Gluteus Maximus nerve? Inferior gluteal
Biceps femoris origin? -Long head – Ischial tuberosity -Short head – Linea aspera
Biceps femoris insertion? Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
Biceps femoris action? -Hip extension and adduction -Flexion of knee
Biceps femoris nerve? -Long head – Tibial portion of sciatic -Short head – Common peroneal portion of sciatic
Semitendinosus origin? Ischial tuberosity
Semitendinosus insertion? Medial tibia
Semitendinosus action? -Hip Extension and adduction -Flexion of knee
Semitendinosus Nerve? Tibial portion of sciatic
Semimembranosus origin? Ischial tuberosity
Semimembranosus Insertion? Medial tibia
Semimembranosus action? -Hip extension and adduction -Flexion of knee
Semimembranosus nerve? Tibial portion of sciatic
Gluteus medius origin? Ilium
Gluteus medius insertion Greater trochanter
Gluteus medius action? -Anterior portion: Hip abduction, hip flexion and medial rotation -Posterior portion: Hip extension and lateral rotation -Stabilization of pelvis when contralateral foot is raised
Gluteus medius nerve? superior gluteal
Gluteus minimums origin? Ilium
Gluteus minimums insertion? Greater trochanter
Gluteus minimums action? Main function – abduction and medial rotation Anterior portion – Assists with flexion Posterior portion – Extension Stabilization of pelvis when contralateral foot is raised
Gluteus minimums nerve? Superior gluteal
Piriformis origin? Anterior sacrum via sciatic foramen
Piriformis insertion? Greater trochanter
Piriformis action? -Lateral rotation of hip -Hip abduction and horizontal abduction from flexed position
Piriformis nerve? Ventral rami of sacral plexus
Adductor longus origin? pubic bone
Adductor longus insertion? middle 1/3 of linea aspera
Adductor longus action? hip adduction hip flexion
Adductor longus nerve? obturator
adductor brevis origin? pubic bone
adductor brevis insertion? proximal 1/3 of linea aspera
adductor brevis action? hip adduction hip flexion
adductor brevis nerve? obturator
adductor magnus: anterior fibers origin? Ramus of ischium and pubis
adductor magnus: posterior fibers origin? Ischial tuberosity
adductor magnus insertion? Linea aspera and adductor tubercle
adductor magnus: anterior fibers action? hip adduction (both) Assist with hip flexion/medial rotation
adductor magnus: posterior fibers action? hip adduction (both) Assist with hip extension and lateral rotation
adductor magnus: anterior fibers nerve? Obturator
adductor magnus: posterior fibers nerve? Tibial portion of sciatic
Gracilis origin? Pubic symphysis and pubic bone
Gracilis insertion? Just distal to medial tibial condyle
Gracilis action? Hip adduction, medial rotation Knee flexion
Gracilis nerve? Obturator
Quadratus femoris origin? Ischial tuberosity
Quadratus femoris insertion? Intertrochanteric crest
Quadratus femoris action? External rotation, adduction of hip
Quadratus femoris nerve? Lumbosacral trunk (L4, L5 and S1)
Superior Gemellus origin? Lateral ischial spine
Superior Gemellus insertion? Greater trochanter
Superior Gemellus action? Assist in Lateral hip rotation Horizontal abduction
Superior Gemellus nerve? L5, S1, S2 (Obturator internis)
Inferior Gemellus origin? Ischial tuberosity
Inferior Gemellus insertion? Ischial tuberosity
Inferior Gemellus action? Assist in Lateral hip rotation and Horizontal abduction
Inferior Gemellus nerve? Quadratus femoris (L5, S1)
Internal obturator origin? Obturator membrane and rim of obturator foramen
Internal obturator insertion? Greater trochanter
Internal obturator action? Lateral rotation of hip Horizontal abduction from flexed position
Internal obturator nerve? Obturator internus (L5, S1, S2)
External Obturator origin? Obturator membrane, ischium and pubis
External Obturator insertion? Trochanteric fossa of femur
External Obturator action? External rotation of hip
External Obturator nerve? Obturator nerve
Gastrocnemius origin? Lateral and medial femoral condyles
Gastrocnemius Insertion? Calcaneous via Achilles tendon
Gastrocnemius Action? Knee flexion Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion of foot increases knee flexion capability
Gastrocnemius Nerve? Tibial nerve
Popliteus origin? Lateral femoral condyle
Popliteus insertion? Popliteal line on proximal tibia
Popliteus action? Knee flexion Medial rotation of tibia to unlock the knee
Popliteus nerve? tibial nerve
Plantaris origin? Oblique popliteal ligament, lateral distal femur
Plantaris insertion? Calcaneous medial to Achilles
Plantaris action? Knee flexion Plantar flexion
Plantaris nerve? Tibial nerve
Vastus lateralis origin? Greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line
Vastus lateralis insertion? Lateral border of patella; tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus lateralis action? Extends knee joint
Vastus lateralis nerve? Femoral nerve
Vastus medialis origin? Intertrochanteric line and medial proximal femur
Vastus medialis insertion? Medial border of patella; tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus medialis action? Extends knee joint
Vastus medialis nerve? Femoral knee
Vastus Intermedius origin? Proximal 2/3 anterior femur
Vastus Intermedius insertion? Superior border of patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Vastus Intermedius action? Extends knee joint
Vastus Intermedius synergists? Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis
Vastus Intermedius nerve? Femoral nerve
Tibialis anterior origin? Lateral condyle of tibia proximal 2/3 of lateral tibia, interosseous membrane
Tibialis anterior insertion? Plantar side of 1st metatarsal
Tibialis anterior action? Dorsiflexion and inversion Resists posterior sway
Tibialis anterior synergists? Extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius (dorsiflexion)
Tibialis anterior nerve? Deep peroneal
Extensor digitorum longus origin? Lateral condyle of tibia; fibula head, proximal ¾ fibular body, interosseous membrane
Extensor digitorum longus insertion? Middle and distal phalanges 2-5
Extensor digitorum longus action? Extends MPs and IPs digits 2-5 Dorsiflexes and everts ankle joint
Extensor digitorum longus synergists? Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis longus, peroneus tertius
Extensor digitorum longus Nerve? Deep peroneal
Extensor hallucis longus origin? Anterior fibula; interosseus membrane
Extensor hallucis longus insertion? Distal phalanx digit 1
Extensor hallucis longus action? Extends MP and IP digit 1
Extensor hallucis longus synergists? Extensor hallucis brevis
Extensor hallucis longus nerve? Deep peroneal
Peroneus longus origin? Head and proximal 2/3 lateral fibula
Peroneus longus insertion? Plantar surface of 1st cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
Peroneus longus action? Eversion and plantarflexion Laterally stabilizes ankle
Peroneus longus synergists? Gastrocnemius, soleus (plantarflexion), peroneus brevis/tertius (eversion)
Peroneus longus nerve? Superficial peroneal
Peroneus brevis origin? Distal 2/3 lateral fibula
Peroneus brevis insertion? 5th metatarsal tuberosity
Peroneus brevis action? Eversion and plantarflexion Laterally stabilizes ankle
Peroneus brevis synergists? Gastrocnemius, soleus (plantar flexion), peroneus longus/tertius (eversion)
Peroneus brevis nerve? Superficial peroneal
Peroneus tertius origin? Distal anterior fibula, interosseus membrane
Peroneus tertius insertion? Dorsal 5th metatarsal
Peroneus tertius action? Dorsiflexion and eversion
Peroneus tertius synergists? Extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior (dorsiflexion), peroneus longus and brevis (eversion)
Peroneus tertius nerve? Deep peroneal
Gastrocnemius origin? Lateral and medial femoral condyles
Gastrocnemius insertion? Calcaneous via Achilles tendon
Gastrocnemius action? Knee flexion Plantarflexion Dorsiflexion of foot increases knee flexion capability
Gastrocnemius nerve? Tibial
Soleus origin? Proximal 1/3 of fibula; middle 1/3 tibia
Soleus insertion? Calcaneous via Achilles tendon
Soleus action? Plantar flexion
Soleus synergists? Gastrocnemius, plantaris, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus
Soleus nerve? Tibial nerve
Tibialis posterior origin? Lateral posterior tibia, proximal 2/3 fibula, interosseus membrane
Tibialis posterior insertion? Calcaneous, navicular, cuneiforms, and 2-4 metatarsals
Tibialis posterior action? Inversion and plantar flexion Medial ankle stabilizer
Tibialis posterior synergists? Flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus (plantar flexion and inversion), tibialis anterior (inversion)
Tibialis posterior nerve? Tibial
Flexor digitorum longus origin? Posterior tibia
Flexor digitorum longus insertion? Distal phalanges of toes 2-5
Flexor digitorum longus action? Flexion of MP and IP joints Plantar flexion and inversion of ankle
Flexor digitorum longus synergists? Tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum brevis
Flexor digitorum longus nerve? Tibial
Flexor hallucis longus origin? Posterior fibula and interosseous membrane
Flexor hallucis longus insertion? Distal phalanx of big toe
Flexor hallucis longus action? Flexion of MP and IP joint big toe (point toe down), Aids in plantar flexion and inversion of ankle
Flexor hallucis longus synergists? Tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus nerve? Tibial nerve
Flexor digitorum brevis origin? Calcaneal tuberosity, plantar aponeurosis
Flexor digitorum brevis insertion? Middle phalanges of toes 2-5
Flexor digitorum brevis action? Flexes proximal IP and MP joints
Flexor digitorum brevis synergists? Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor digitorum brevis nerve? Medial plantar
Abductor hallucis action? Abduction at MP joint of big toe
Abductor digiti minimi action? Abduction of 5th toe
Quadratus Plantae action? Assists longus flex toes 2-5
Lumbricals action? Flexes the MPs Extends the IPs
Flexor hallucis brevis action? Flexes MP joint
Adductor hallucis action? Adduction of big toe
Flexor digiti minimi brevis action? Flexes MP joint of 5th toe
Dorsal interossei action? Abduction of toes 2-4 Flexes the MPs, extends the IPs
Plantar interossei action? Adduction of toes 3-5 Flex the MPs, extend the IPs
Extensor digitorum brevis action? Extends MPs and IPs of toes 2-4
Extensor hallucis brevis action? Extends MP joint of big toe
Created by: rmart11