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Absolutism The acceptance of or belief in absolute power in political, philosophical and ethical matters :Absolute monarchy: Dictatorships: Tsar:Totalitarian:Tyrants:Despot: Philip II, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Louis XIV
Absolute Monarchy Is a form of government where the monarch has absolute power Unrestricted political power Absolutism Divine right Kings/Queens Philip II of Spain, Elizabeth I of England, Louis XIV of France, Catherine the Great & Peter the Great of Russia
Divine Right A doctrine that granted Kings and Queens the God-given right to rule Absolute Monarchy Autocrats/autocratic Louis XIV of France → Sun King L’etat C’est Moi- “I am the state” Mandate of Heaven in China Tsar
Despot A ruler/ other person who holds absolute power; typically one who exercises it in a cruel or oppressive way Peter the Great Elizabeth I Absolutism Autocrats/autocratic Divine right Absolute Monarchy
Henry VIII of England King of England from 1509-1547 Protestant Reformation Church of England 6 wives~ execution of 2 Tyrant→ opposition is killed Absolutism Despot Divine right Autocrat Elizabeth I was his daughter
Philip II of Spain King of Spain & Portugal from 1556 to 1598 Used his power to enforce Catholicism Controlled the Spanish Empire/ Latin America His Armada was defeated by the Protestant Queen in 1588 Absolute Monarch Divine Right Despot Autocrat
Elizabeth I of England Queen of England from 1558-1603: her reign was a Golden Age Protestant Queen Virgin Queen Famous for defeating defeating Philip II’s infamous Spanish Armada Ordered the execution of Mary Queen of Scots… her cousin Daughter of Henry VIII
Louis XIV of France King of France from 1643-1715 Aka sun king > Absolute Monarch L’etat C’est moi= “I am the state” Autocrat Gave money to North Americans for French + Indian war/ Seven Years War Versailles Palace Mass spending leads to French Revolution
Peter the Great of Russia Tsar of Russia/founder of Russian Empire→ 1672-1725 Most autocratic of ALL Russian tsars Modernization- Russian calendar Westernization St. Petersburg“Window to the West” Navy wanted to gain access and control of warm water port
Catherine the Great of Russia Tsarina of Russia from 1762-1795 Arrogant woman/ huge ego Ended most forms of serfdom Absolute Monarch An Enlightened Despot Gained access to warm water port on the Black Sea. Continued modernizing + westernizing Russia.
Magna Carta An English doctrine that limited royal power and established certain freedoms to the English 1215- against King John 1st example if limited absolute power Influences Glorious Revolution English Bill of Rights Enlightenments American Constitution
Glorious Revolution A nonpolitical revolution that took place in England in 1660 Influenced by Magna Carta (1215) Leads to English Bill of Rights & Enlightenment William & Mary of England Limited Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Parliament
English Bill of Rights As a result of the Glorious Revolution- in order for William and Mary to become the next Monarchs, they were forced to sign the English Bill of Rights 1689 ensured the power of Parliament Rights of citizens Influences the Enlightenment-Cont. M.C
Constitutional Monarchy A government whose power is limited by law’ monarch has to act within limits of a constitution Magna Carta (1215) Glorious Revolution (1660’s) English Bill of Rights (1689) Enlightenment (1700’s)
Limited Monarchy A form of government in which a constitution or legislative body limits power of Monarchy. Magna Carta (1215) Glorious Revolution-1660’s English Bill of Rights Enlightenment-1700’s
Ancien Regime Old order in France Reflected the outdated system of the Medieval Ages Social class structure- Three Estates Cause of the French Revolution because of the inequality~ Tax Burden of the 3rd Estate Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
Three Estates The social class structure of France prior to the French Revolution Top of Triangle: First Estate (Clergy) Next: Second Estate (Nobility) Last: Third Estate (Everyone else- paid all the taxes) Ancien Regime Long Term Cause of French Revolution
Estates General Legislative body in France until 1789 that represented the Three Estates Tennis Court Oath Louis XVI Social inequality Deficit spending and burden of taxes fell on the 3rd Estate Had not met in 175 Years
Tennis Court Oath Took place on June 20, 1789 (1st day of Revolution) 576 members of 3rd Estate pledged to never separate until a Constitution was established Estates General→ National Assembly Guillotine Leads to the Storming of the Bastille Maximilien Robespierre
National Assembly Governing body of France in the first part of the French Revolution 1789-1791 Tennis Court Oath Storming Of the Bastille 7/14/89 Abolished feudalism and established Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen Enlightenment/ Age of Reason Guillotine
Enlightenment A time period that challenged the old order of structured government using logic and reason Cause Scientific Revolution 1600-1700Natural Law Natural Rights Thinker Locke, Voltaire Effects- Political Revolution Long Term Development of new government
John Locke An Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Two Treatises of Government: where he argued that man was naturally good. * Proposed the idea of Natural rights, Life, Liberty, and property Age of Reason Separation of Church and State Montesquieu Voltaire
Jean Jacques Rousseau An Enlightenment philosopher who believed man was naturally good The Social Contract Government is here for the good of the people Consent of the governed Age of Reason Locke, Montesquieu
Baron de Montesquieu Enlightenment thinker wrote The Spirit of Laws - he argued there should be a Separation of power within the government so that there was a system of checks and balances 3 branches: Legislative, Judicial, Executive Age of Reason John Locke Voltaire
Voltaire An Enlightenment thinker, sarcastic, witty, poet, historian, philosopher who targeted the french government and Catholic churchReal name= Francois Marie Arouet Freedom of speech and press Targeted corrupt officials John Locke Montesquieu
Thomas Hobbes An Enlightenment thinker who wrote Leviathan where he argued man was naturally cruel, greedy and selfish Believed that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Embraced absolute monarchies, divine right Niccolo Machiavelli, Aristotle
Ancien Regime: Old order in France Reflected the outdated system of the Medieval Ages Social Class structure- three Estates Cause of the French Revolution because of the inequality~tax burden of the 3rd estate Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
Louis XVI King of France from 1774-1792; Was born in 1754- great grandson of Louis XIV (Sun King) Married Marie Antoinette in 1770 Had 4 children Ineffective incompetent as a leader Deficit spending Executed on Jan 21, 1793 by guillotine French Revolution
Marie Antoinette Born an Austrian princess in 1755 marriage was arranged as an alliance between France and Austria Was hated by the French public “ Let them eat cake” Madame deficit4 children- 1 dies Dies Oct. 16,1793 unmarked Last queen of France French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre A lawyer and politician turned radical revolutionary who became the leader of the radical stage of the French Revolution “Death to Traitors” Believed that terror served justice that without terror the revolution goals would not be met Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror The radical stage of the French Revolution that lasted from September 1793-1794 (10 months) Committee of Public Safety Maximilien Robespierre Jacobins Sans- Culottes 300,000 arrested, 16,000 guillotined, 30,000 died Robespierre executed July 28, 1794
Jacobins A radical political club member during the French Revolution- a democratic club formed in 1789 Reign of Terror- 1793-1794 Maximilien Robespierre Sans-Culottes Disagreed with Louis XVI Committee of Public Safety
Sans- Culottes Lower class Parisian republicans in the French Revolution; known to wear pants Extreme/ radical Radical stage Working class men and women “Without breeches” because they did not wear knee breeches of upper class Jacobins Reign of Terror
Guillotine An execution device developed in France with the intention of executing people in a more humane way Could cut through a neck with more accuracy and precision than an ax suggested the angled blade Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Maximillien Robespierre
Napoleon Bonaparte A popular military hero who won a series of victories against the Austrians in Italy. Rose to power in the early 1800’s after a coup d’etar in 1799 names himself consul for life Redraws Europe as he conquers Invasion of Russia he is exiled to St. Helena
Napoleonic Code Code of laws developed under the rule and Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte Embodied Enlightenment ideals Equality of all citizens before law Religious tolerance Abolition of feudalism Civil Code Hammurabi’s Code + Justinian’s Code
Congress of Vienna A meeting of Europe’s leaders to redraw the borders of Europe after Napoleon’s conquest Met for 10 months Sept. 1814-June 1815 GOALS: Lasting peace Redraw Europe’s borders Restore hereditary kings to power Louis XVIII becomes King of France 1814-1824
Created by: mbarkley