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Acid A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions.
Alkali A soluble base is called an alkali.
Alpha radiation Emission of alpha particles (helium nuclei) in a nuclear reaction.
Atom The smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Atomic mass The total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom.
Atomic model A representation to show the arrangement of particles in an atom.
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom.
Background radiation Radiation coming from sources other than that being observed (e.g., cosmic radiation and radiation from unstable isotopes in rocks and soil).
Base A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions.
Becquerel The becquerel (Bq) is the unit used to measure the decay rate of radioisotopes. It is the number of atoms that decay per second.
Beta radiation Emission of beta particles (electrons) in a nuclear reaction.
Carbohydrate A large molecule containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (e.g., glucose, starch).
Cathode ray tube A vacuum tube containing an electron emitter and a fluorescent screen to view images produced by the electron beam.
Chemical equation A summary of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
Chemical reaction A change that results in new substances being formed.
Classify To sort objects into groups based on their properties.
Combustion A chemical reaction in which a fuel reacts with oxygen to release energy.
Compound A substance made up of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds.
Covalent bond A situation where two atoms are bound together by electrical forces due to the shared arrangement of their valence electrons.
Covalent compound A compound that is formed by the sharing of electrons between non-metallic elements.
Decomposition reaction A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler substances.
Dissociate Breaking apart a molecule during a chemical reaction.
Electron A sub-atomic particle with a negative charge. Electrons travel in orbitals around the nucleus of an atom.
Electron configuration The number and arrangement of electrons in shells (energy levels) in an atom.
Element A substance made up of only one kind of atom.
Endothermic reaction A chemical reaction which requires energy.
Energy level The energy level of electron orbitals is related to distance from the nucleus; the further away from the nucleus, the higher the energy level of the electrons.
Exothermic reaction A chemical reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat.
Fermentation A reaction in which energy is produced in the absence of oxygen.
Gamma ray Electromagnetic radiation of high energy that can be emitted from radioactive substances.
Geiger-Muller counter An instrument used to measure radioactivity by counting ionisation of particles.
Group A vertical section of the Periodic Table containing elements with similar outer electron configurations.
Haber process An industrial process for the production of ammonia from the elements nitrogen and hydrogen.
Half-life The time taken for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
Heat A form of energy that flows from hot objects to cold objects.
Hypothesis A statement that predicts a possible explanation for observations, that can be tested by experiment.
Incomplete combustion Incomplete combustion occurs if there is insufficient oxygen, so that less energy is produced. The products of the reaction include carbon monoxide and carbon (soot).
Indicator A chemical that changes colour at different pH values.
Ion A particle that is charged due to the addition or removal of electrons from a neutral atom.
Ionic bond A force between metallic and non-metallic particles due to attraction between positive and negatively charged ions.
Ionic compound A compound formed from metal and non-metal ions.
Ionic formula A symbolic representation that shows the types and numbers of ions in an ionic compound.
Ionic solution A solution in which the ions are free to move and conduct electricity.
Isotope An atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
Law A theory to which no exceptions have been found at the time it is made. Scientific laws explain why things happen.
Litmus An acid/base indicator obtained from lichens.
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Metalloid An element that displays some properties of both metals and non-metals.
Molecular formula A symbolic representation that shows the types and numbers of atoms in each molecule of a covalent compound.
Molecular model A model representing the arrangement of atoms and shape of a molecule.
Molecule Two or more atoms chemically combined together in fixed proportions.
Neutral Neither acidic nor basic. A substance with equal amounts of hydroxide and hydrogen ions and a pH of 7.
Neutralisation A reaction between an acid and base that produces salt and water.
Neutron A neutral particle, of equivalent mass to a proton, found in the nucleus of atoms.
Nuclear fission The process where an unstable nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei accompanied by a large release of energy.
Nuclear fusion A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at very high speed and join to form a different element, releasing a huge amount of energy.
Nuclear power station A power station in which nuclear energy (fission) is used to produce electricity.
Nuclear reaction A reaction that involves changes to the nucleus of an atom, usually involving very high energies and the emission of radiation.
Nucleus The small, dense centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
Observation The act of noting, recording and possibly measuring something, often by using an instrument.
Particle An individual piece of matter. Particles include atoms and molecules as well as a variety of even smaller sub atomic entities.
Penetration The ability of radiation to pass through barriers (e.g., paper, aluminium, lead).
Period A horizontal section (row) of the Periodic Table containing elements with the same number of electron shells.
Periodic table A table, widely used in chemistry, which arranges all the elements in a pattern determined by their atomic weight and chemical properties.
pH scale A scale indicating the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. It ranges from 0 (strong acid) to 14 (strong base). A pH of 7 is neutral.
Philosopher A person who offers views or theories on profound questions in ethics, abstract concepts, logic and other related fields.
Photosynthesis A series of chemical reactions which occur in the chloroplasts of green plants. Carbon dioxide and water combine in the presence of light and chlorophyll to produce sugars and oxygen.
Polar A polar molecule has positive and negatively charged ends.
Polyatomic ion A charged particle made up of two or more elements that are covalently bonded together and act as one unit (e.g., hydroxide (OH-)).
Precipitate A solid produced in a chemical reaction.
Products The substances produced in a chemical reaction.
Property A feature of a substance that can be used to classify or identify it.
Proton Positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Each element has a different specific number of protons in its nucleus.
Radiation The process in which energy is transmitted as particles or waves (e.g., gamma rays, beta particles).
Radioactivity The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus leading to the emission of radiation.
Radiocarbon dating Radiocarbon dating (or carbon dating) is a dating technique that uses the decay of carbon-14 to measure the age of materials originating from living things (e.g., wood, leather, bones) up to about 60,000 years old.
Radioisotope An atom with an unstable nucleus that decays to form a more stable nucleus of a different element.
Range The distance over which something (e.g., radiation) can be detected or sampled.
Reactants The substances present before a chemical change takes place.
Reagent A substance (reactant) added to make a chemical reaction occur.
Reliability The reliability of an experiment is a measure of its consistency; if repeated the same results are obtained.
Respiration The chemical reactions in which cells obtain energy. Glucose combines with oxygen in a complex series of reactions to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water.
Salt A substance produced in a neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base.
Sievert A sievert (Sv) is the unit used to measure the radiation dose absorbed by the body.
Spectator ions Ions that remain in solution after a precipitate has formed.
Strong acids/bases Strong acid and bases dissociate completely into ions when they are in solution.
Temperature A measure of the kinetic energy of the particles in a substance: heat flows from objects at a higher temperature to objects at a lower temperature.
Theory An hypothesis that has been supported by repeated scientific testing.
Universal indicator A mixture of different indicators and undergoes a series of colour changes over a range of pH values from 0 to 14.
Valence electrons The outer electrons of an atom that are involved in chemical bonds with other atoms.
Valency The combining power of an atom determined by the number of outer shell electrons.
Validity The validity of an experiment is decided by how well the design enables the aims to be achieved. A controlled experiment is valid if all variables that may affect the experiment are controlled and only one factor (the independent variable) is changed.
Weak acids/bases Weak acids and bases largely remain as molecules in solution and so there are fewer hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions present.
Created by: khall1