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Study List 1

derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
hidr/o sweat perspiration
kerat/o keratin horny layer of skin
melan/o dark black melanin
onych/o nail
seb/o sebum sebaceous gland
trich/o hair
arthr/o joint
burs/o bursa sac of fluid near joint
chondr/o cartilage
erg/o work
fasci/o fascia
kin/o, kinesi/o movement
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
oste/o bone
synov/i synovial fluid joint or membrane
ten/o, tendin/o tendon
ton/o tone pressure
bronch/0 bronchus
laryng/o larynx
pharyng/o pharnyx
phren/o diaphragm
phrenic/o phrenic nerve
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumat/o air, gas respiration, lung
pulm/o, pulmon/o lungs
rhin/o nose
spir/o breathing
trache/o trachea
angi/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arter/o, arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
phleb/o vein
valv/o, valvul/o valve
vas/o, vascul/o vessel duct
ven/o, ven/i vein
ventricul/o cavity ventricle
erythr/o, erythrocyt/o red blood cell
hem/o, hemat/o blood
immun/o immunity immune system
leuk/o, leukocyt/o white blood cell
lymph/o lymph lymphatic system
lymphaden/o lymph node
lymphangi/o lympahtic vessel
splen/o spleen
thromb/o blood clot
thrombocyt/o platelet thrombocyte
thym/o thymus gland
tonsil/o tonsil
bucc/o cheek
chol/e, chol/o bile gall
cholangi/o bile duct
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
enter/o intestine
gastr/o stomach
gloss/o tongue
hepat/o liver
labi/o lip
lingu/o tongue
or/o mouth
sial/o saliva salivary gland salivary duct
stoma, stomat/o mouth
proct/o rectum and anus
uvul/o uvula
cali/o, calic/o calyx
cyst/o urinary bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
nephr/o kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
ren/o kidney
ur/o urine urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
urin/o urine
vesic/o urinary bladder
epididym/o epididymis
orchi/o, orchid/o testis
osche/o scrotum
prostat/o prostate
semin/o semen
sperm/o, spermat/o semen spermatozoa
test/o testis testicle
vas/o vas deferens ductus deferens vessel duct
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
colp/o vagina
episi/o vulva
gyn/o, gynec/o woman
hyster/o uterus
mast/o breast mammary gland
men/o, mens menstruation
metr/o, metr/i uterus
o/o ovum, egg cell
oophor/o ovary
ov/o, ovul/o ovum, egg cell
salping/o oviduct tube
adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal gland epinephrine
adrenocortic/o adrenal cortex
endocrin/o endocrine glands or system
hypophys/o pituitary gland hypophysis
insul/o pancreatic islets
parathyr/o, parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland hypophysis
thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid gland
cerebr/o cerebrum
cortic/o cerbral cortex; outer portion
encephal/o brain
gangli/o, ganglion/o ganglion
gli/o neuroglia cells
medull/o medulla oblongata medulla (inner section) middle soft marrow
mening/o, meninge/o meninges
myel/o spinal cord and bone marrow
narc/o stupor numbness, sleep
neur/o, neur/i nervous system nervous tissue nerve
psych/o mind
radicul/o spinal nerve root
somn/o, somn/i sleep
blephar/o eyelid
cochle/o cochlea of inner ear
corne/o cornea
dacryocyst/o lacrimal sac
lacrim/o tear lacrimal apparatus
myring/o tympanic membrane
ot/o ear
phak/o, phac/o lens
retin/o retina
salping/o tube eustachian tube
scler/o sclera
tympan/o tympanic cavity (middle ear) tympanic membrane
ec-, ecto- out; outside
end/o- in; within
mes/o middle
dextr/o right
ab- away from
ad- toward; near
dia- through; complete
per- through
trans- through; across
ante- before; forward
pre- before; in front of
pro- before; in front of
post- after; behind
mon/o one; single
bi- two; twice
tri- three
quadri- four
poly- many
-gram a record of data
-graph instrument for recording data
-graphy act of recording data
-meter instrument for measuring
-scope instrument for viewing or examining
-scopy examination of
-centesis puncture tap
-desis binding fusion
-ectomy excision surgical removal
-pexy surgical fixation
-plasty plastic repair plastic surgery, reconstruction
-rraphy surgical repair suture
-stomy surgical creation of an opening
-tome instrument for incising (cutting)
-tomy incision cutting
-tripsy crushing
singular word ending in 'a' changes to plural 'ae' example vertebra changes to vertebrae
singular word ending in 'en' changes to plural 'ina' example lumen changes to lumina
singular word ending in 'ex, ix, yx' changes to plural 'ices' example index changes to indices
singular word ending in 'is' changes to plural 'es' example prognosis changes to prognoses
singular word ending in 'ma' changes to plural 'mata' example stigma changes to stigmata
singular word ending in 'nx' changes to plural 'nges' example phalanx changes to phalanges
singular word ending in 'on' changes to plural 'a' example phenomenon changes to phenomena
singular word ending in 'um' changes to plural 'a' example serum changes to sera
singular word ending in 'us' changes to plural 'i' example thrombus changes to thrombi
anterior (ventral) toward the front of the body
posterior (dorsal) toward the back of the body
medial toward the midline of the body
lateral toward the side of the body
proximal nearer to the point of attachment or to a given reference point
distal farther from the point of attachment or from a given reference point
superior (cranial) above; toward the head
inferior (caudal) below; toward the lower end of the spine
superficial (external) closer to the surface of the body
deep (internal) closer to the center of the body
sagittal cuts through the body from front to back and divides the body into right and left sections
midsagittal cuts through the midline of the body from front to back and divides the body into equal right and left sections
frontal (coronal) cuts at a right angle to the midlind, from side to side, and divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) sections
transverse (horizontal) (axial) cuts horizontally through the body and separates the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) sections
cell membrane surrounds and protects the cell
cytoplasm makes up the body of the cell
nucleus round structure in the center of the cell containing chromosomes and neucleoplasm (DNA, RNA)
chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell linear strand of DNA
what tissue produces movement? muscle tissue
what tissue conducts impulses to and from the brain? nerve tissue
what tissue connects and supports various body structures? connective tissue example: adipose (fat) and osseous (bone)
where is epithelial tissue found? in the skin lining of the blood vessels, respiratory , intestinal, urinary tracts and other body systems
organs are... two or more kinds of tissues, together performing special body functions example: skin composed of epithelial, connective and nerve tissue
systems are... groups of organs working together to perform complex body functions example: nervous system is composed of the brain, spinal cord and nerves- functioning to coordinate and control other body parts
cytology study of cells including the formation, structure and function of cells
RNA in the nucleus of the cell transcribed from DNA by enzymes and plays a crucial role in protein synthesis
gene specific segment of base pairs in chromosomes; functional unit of heredity
mitosis cells division
dorsal cavity contains the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
cranial cavity space inside the skull, or cranium, containing the brain
spinal cavity (vertebral cavity) space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord
ventral cavity contains the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
thoracic cavity (chest cavity) space containing the heart, lungs esophagus, trachea, bronchi and thymus
abdominal cavity space containing the lower portion of the esophagus, the stomach, intestines (excluding sigmoid colon and rectum) kidneys, liver, gall bladder, pancreas,spleen and ureters
pelvic cavity space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, part of the large intestine and the rectum
mucous membranes line the interior walls of the organs and tubes opening to the outside of the body lined with epithelium involved with absorption and secretion
every mucous membrane secrets mucus T/F FALSE
serous membranes line cavities are a layer of simple squamous epithelium overlaying a layer of loose connective tissue function- support internal organs and compartmentalize the large cavities to hinder spread of infection
serous membrane covering the lungs pleura
serous membrane covering the heart pericardium
serous membrane covering the abdominal cavity peritoneum
synovial membrane line joint cavities composed of connective tissue secret synovial fluid into the joint cavity to lubricate the ends of bones so they move freely
meninges (membrane) composed of 3 connective tissue membranes found in the dorsal cavity and serve as a protective covering for the brain and spinal cord
meninges layers (outside to inside) dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater
cutaneous membrane is the skin forms the outer layer of the body consists of a thin outer layer of stratified squamous epithelium attached to a thicker underlying layer of connective tissue
skin layers epidermis and dermis
epidermis layers together are called stratum; 4-5 layers depending on location
stratum coreum (in epidermis) the horny layer outermost layer
stratum lucidum (in epidermis) normally only found on the palms and soles clear layer
stratum granulosum (in epidermis) granular layer of cells contains keratohyaline granules and lamellated granules
stratum spinosum (in epidermis) composed of prickle cells that are interwoven for protection
startum basale (stratum germinativum) (in epidermis) deepest of the 5 layers made of basal cells
dermis layers are located deerer, just under the epidermis T/F TRUE
stratum papillare (in dermis) thin superficial layer interlocked with the epidermis
stratum reticulare (in dermis) thick layer of dense, irregular connective tissue
dermis contains structures for nourishing and innervating the skin- they are... vessels carrying blood and lymph nerves and nerve endings glands hair follicles
dermis lies where? on the subcutaneous tissue (beneath the skin)
subcutaneous tissue is known as the ______________ hypodermis
The hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue) is considered a layer of the skin. T/F FALSE
What are subcutaneous tissues mostly composed of? fatty or adipose tissue some areolar tissue
hypodermis function protect the underlying structures, prevnet loss of body heat, anchor the skin to the underlying musculature
fibrous connective tissue is referred to as ___________ superficial fascia
cutaneous pertaining to the skin
decubitus pressure ulcer or bed sore
ecchymosis condition in which blood seeps into the skin causing discoloration
hypodermic under the skin
intradermal within the skin
jaundice yellowing of the skin
melanin pigment giving color to the skin
melanoma pigmented malignant tumor of the skin; the most dangerous form of skin cancer
pediculosis infestation with lice
subcutaneous below the skin
tinea ringworm (a fungal infection of the skin)
How many hair follicles does the body have on average? 5 million over all approx 1 million on the head
How fast does hair grow? approx .3 to .4 mm per day or 6" per year
Structures of hair are ________ and _________. follicle shaft
hair papilla bulb- like projection at the base of the follicle containing the blood supply to hair root
How many sheaths protect the hair follicle? 2- the inner and the outer
Where does the inner sheath end? at the opening of the sebaceous gland -this gland secretes sebum that can pocket causing benign lesions on the scalp
erector pili 'goose bumps' attaches to the outer sheath around a hair follicle
hair shaft keratin layers medulla cortex- contains pigment cells for hair color cuticle
What are fingernails for? protect the plate increase sensory input of touch
What slows nail growth? age poor circulation
How fast do nails grow? fingernails approx 3 mm per month toenails approx 1 mm per month
nail parts 1. root 2. nail bed 3. nail plate 4. eponychium (cuticle) 5. perionychium 6. hyponychium
nail root also called the germinal matrix produces most of the volume of the nail and nail bed
lunula white crescent shaped area of the nail
nail bed also called the sterile matrix skin below the nail, epidermis and dermis contains blood vessels, nerves and melanocytes
nail plate actual fingernail made of translucent keratin
What anchors the nail plate to the nail bed? grooves along the inner length of the nail plate
eponychium cuticle lies between the skin of the finger and the nail plate fusing them together
perionychium also called the paronychial edge skin overlying the nail plate on it's sides site of hangnails, ingrown nails and infection of the skin called paronychia
hyponychium junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin
Alopecia loss of hair
hair follicles sacs holding the root of hair fibers
Onychitis inflammation of nail matrix
function of bones form the skeleton provide chief means of support for the body provide mechanism for motion protect vital organs serve as production factory for blood cells (ex: marrow) store calcium, phosphorus and magnesium
long bones longer than they are wide found in limbs named for elongated shape, not their size
tubular bones long bones
short bones roughly cube shaped ex: carpal bones in wrist and tarsal bones in ankle
sesamoid bone short bone (shaped like a sesame seed) formed with tendons catrilaginous in early life osseous (bony) in the adult ex: patella- largest sesamoid bone in the body
cuboidal bone short bones
flat bones consist of layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone cross-section is flat, not rounded they have marrow but lack bone marrow cavity ex: skull and ribs
irregular bones bones that do not fit in another category several found in the face and vertebrae
cartilage type of flexible connective tissue nonvascular made of chondrocytes, collagen and proteoglycans
joints/ articulating surfaces connection between two or more parts of the skeleton classified according to connective tissue at the joint (fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial)
synovial joints -articular cartilage covers bone ends -joint cavity lined with synovial membrane, secretes a mucous to cushion joint for smooth motion -joint capsule of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds and provides stabilty -accessory ligaments that reinforce
axial skeleton skull hyoid ribs sternum vertebrae sacrum
appendicular skeleton shoulder girdle pelvic girdle extremities
Closed fracture does not involve a break in the skin
Compound fracture projects through the skin with a possibility of infection
Comminuted fracture more than 2 separate bone components (fragments)
Transverse fracture breaks shaft of a bone across the longitudinal axis
Greenstick fracture only one side of shaft is broken and other is bent, common in children
Spiral fracture spread along length of bone and produced by twisting stress
Colles' Fracture occurs in wrist and affects the distal radius bone
Compression Fracture vertebrae collapse due to trauma, tumor, or osteoporosis
Epiphyseal Fracture occurs when matrix is calcifying and chondrocytes are dying; usually seen in children
skeletal muscle -also called striated muscle - attached to the skeleton by tendons -contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control
cardiac muscle -also called heart muscle - contains interlocking involuntary striated muscle and smooth muscle
smooth muscle -found in the walls of all the hollow organs of the body (except heart) -it's contraction reduces the size of the structures -movement generally is involuntary
Ankylosis condition of stiffening of a joint
Arthralgia pain in joint
Arthritis inflammation of a joint
Arthrodesis surgical fixation of a joint
Arthropathy joint disease
Bursitis inflammation of a bursa
Carpal pertaining to the wrist bones
Chondral pertaining to cartilage
Chondralgia pain around and in the cartilage
Connective tissue connecting or binding together
Dactylic pertaining to finger or toe
Femoral pertaining to femur (thighbone)
Iliac pertaining to the ilium
Kyphosis abnormal curvature of thoracic spine (humpback)
Lordosis abnormal anterior curvature of spine, usually lumbar (swayback or hollow back)
Metacarpal long bones of the hand that form the skeletal structure of the palm
Osteoblast bone-forming cell
Osteocarcinoma cancerous tumor of bone
Osteochondritis inflammation of bone and cartilage
Osteoporosis condition resulting in reduction of bone mass
Osteorrhaphy suture of bone
Patellar pertaining to patella
Phalangeal bones of the fingers and toes
Scoliosis lateral curvature of spine
Sternotomy surgical incision of sternum
Tendonitis Inflammation of tendon
Created by: ARCAHelton