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Ossification Nation

Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure-CW/HM

The Skeletal System includes: bones of the skeleton cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
Five Primary Functions of the Skeletal System Support Storage Blood Cell Production Protection Leverage
Bones are classified by Shape Internal Tissue Organization Bone Markings
Structure of Long Bones Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Metaphysis
Diaphysis the shaft heavy wall of compact bone or dense bone central space called medullary (marrow) cavity
Epiphysis wide part at each end articulation with other bones mostly spongy (cancellous) bone covered with compact bone (cortex)
Metaphysis where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Bone (Osseous) Tissue Dense, supportive connective tissue Contains specialized cells Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits around collagen fiber
Characteristics of Bone Tissue Dense matrix: calcium salts, bone cells within lacunae organized around blood vessels Canaliculi: form path for blood vessels exchange nutrients and wastes Periosteum: covers outer surfaces of bones and consists of fibrous and cellular layers
Osteocytes Mature bone cells containing a bone matrix. Live in lacunae. Between layers (lamellae) of matrix. Connect by cytoplasmic extensions through calnaliculi in lamellae. Do not divide
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds (osteogenesis) surrounded by bone become osteocytes
Osteoprogenitor Cells Mesenchymal Stem cells that divide to produce Osteoblasts Located in endosteum, the inner cellular layer of periosteum Assist in fracture repair
Osteoclasts Secrete acids and protein digesting enzymes Giant multinucleate cells Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis) Derived from stem cells that produce macrophages
Yellow Bone Marrow stores fat and found in spongy bone
Red Bone Marrow Has blood Vessels Forms Red Blood Cells Supplies nutrients to osteocytes
Periosteum On the outside of compact bone Covers all bones except parts of joins Made up of outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer
Endosteum Inside of Compact Bone Incomplete Cellular Layer; lines marrow cavity, covers trabecular of spongy bone, lines central canals, contains osteoblasts,osteoprogenitor, and osteoclasts, active in bone growth and repair
Ossification Process of replacing other tissues with bone Two forms: Endochodral and Intramembraneous
Calcification Process of depositing calcium salts Occurs during ossification and in other tissues
Appositional Growth Compact Bone Thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae
Created by: kmores44