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MT Ch. 5

Respiratory System

TermDefinition
upper respiratory tract includes the nose, pharynx, and larynx
lower respiratory tract (which organs are included?) includes the trachea, bronchi, and lungs
external respiration exchange of gases between the external environment and the lungs
internal respiration exchange of gases between the body cells and the blood
paranasal sinuses air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities
adenoids lymphoid tissue located on the posterior wall of the nasal cavity; also called pharyngeal tonsils
Adam's Apple the largest ring of cartilage in the larynx; also called the thyroid cartilage
visceral pleura double-folded serous membrane covering each lung
parietal pleura double-folded serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity
diaphragm contracts to pull air in; relaxes to push air out
adenoid/o adenoids
alveol/o alveolus
bronch/o, bronchi/o bronchus
diaphragmat/o, phren/o diaphragm
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
lob/o lobe
nas/o, rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o lung; air
pulmon/o lung
sept/o septum (wall off, fence)
sinus/o sinus
thorac/o thorax, chest, chest cavity
tonsill/o tonsil
trache/o trachea
atel/o imperfect, incomplete
capn/o carbon dioxide
hem/o, hemat/o blood
muc/o mucus
orth/o straight
ox/i oxygen
phon/o sound, voice
py/o pus
radi/o x-rays, ionizing radiation
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
spir/o breathe, breathing
tom/o to cut, section, or slice
a- // an- absence of, without
endo- within
eu- normal, good
poly- many, much
tachy- fast, rapid
-algia pain
-ar // -ary // -eal pertaining to
-cele hernia or protrusion
-centesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)
-ectasis stretching out, dilation, expansion
-emia in the blood
-gram the record, radiographic image
-graph instrument used to record; the record
-graphy process of recording, radiographic imaging
-meter instrument used to measure
-metry measurement
-pexy surgical fixation; suspension
-pnea breathing
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood; excessive bleeding
-scope instrument used for visual examination
-scopic pertaining to visual examination
-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
-stenosis constriction or narrowing
-stomy creation of an artificial opening
-thorax chest, chest cavity
-tomy cut into; incision
atelectasis incomplete expansion (of the lung or portion of the lung)
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
croup the acute form of laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB); characterized by barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor; may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body; occurs mainly in children
Mesothelioma a rare form of cancer most common in the pleura; most often caused by inhalation exposure to asbestos
pleurisy alternative term for pleuritis (inflammation of the pleura)
empyema alternative term for pyothorax (pus in the chest cavity)
epistaxis nosebleed (also called rhinorrhagia)
acute/adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury
asthma respiratory disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, caused by constriction and inflammation of airways
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progressive lung disease obstructing air flow, which makes breathing difficult; characterized by chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema; often caused by smoking
coccidioidomycosis (also called valley fever) fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body
cystic fibrosis (CF) hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and more
deviated septum one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury of the nasal septum
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) chronic progressive lung disorder characterized by increasing scarring; origin unknown; affects adults over the age of 50
insidious gradual and subtle onset of disease
acute sharp, sudden, short, or severe type of disease
subacute between acute and chronic
chronic disease that continues for a long time
reactive airway disease (RAD) general term, not a specific diagnosis; describes a history of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
influenza (flu) highly contagious and often severe viral infection of the respiratory tract
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to transient periods of apnea; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure
pertussis (whooping cough) highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop
pleural effusion fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
pulmonary edema fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles, most often a manifestation of heart failure
pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when foreign bodies are carried to the pulmonary artery, where they block circulation to the lungs
pulmonary emphysema loss of elasticity of the alveoli resulting in distension causing stretching of the lung; as a result, the body doesn't receive enough oxygen
tuberculosis (TB) infectious bacterial disease, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
upper respiratory infection (URI) commonly called a cold; infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx usually caused by a virus
video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) the use of a thoracoscope and video equipment for an endoscopic approach to diagnose and treat thoracic conditions
tracheotomy performed to establish an airway when normal breathing is obstructed
CT (abbr.) computed tomography
MRI (abbr.) magnetic resonance imaging
NM (abbr.) nuclear medicine; uses radiopharamaceuticals, or tracers
SPECT (abbr.) single-proton emission computed tomography; an NM technique
PET (abbr.) positron emission tomography; often used in oncology and neurology
sonography (ultrasound) produces scans using high frequency sound waves; had its beginning during WWI with the development of sonar
endoscopy direct examination of a hollow body organ or cavity using a tubular instrument with a light source and a viewing lens called an endoscope
chemistry studies usually performed on blood or urine samples to study the chemical reactions that occur in the human body
PSG (abbr.) polysomnography
chest CT scan computerized radiographic image of the chest performed to diagnose tumors, abscesses, and pleural effusion
chest radiograph (CXR) radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the lungs and the heart; also called a chest x-ray
lung ventilation/perfusion scan (VQ scan) two nuclear scan tests, one to measure air flow throughout the lungs (ventilation) and one to measure circulation to all areas of the lungs (perfusion); used to diagnose pulmonary embolism
acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear test performed on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis
acid-fast not easily discolored by acid after staining
sputum culture and sensitivity (C&S) test performed on sputum to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria
arterial blood gases (ABGs) test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH
peak flow meter (PFM) portable instrument used to measure air flow early in forced exhalation; helps monitor asthma
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) group of tests performed to measure breathing capacity and used to determine external respiratory function; useful in distinguishing COPD from asthma
pulse oximetry noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip
auscultation the act of listening through a stethoscope for sounds within the body
percussion the act of tapping a body surface to determine the density of the part beneath by the sound obtained
PPD skin test test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis; PPD of the tuberculin bacillus is injected intradermally
PPD (abbr.) purified protein derivative
phrenic alternative term for diaphragmatic
airway passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
asphyxia deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
aspirate to withdraw or suction fluid
bronchoconstrictor agent causing the bronchi to narrow
crackles (or rales) discontinuous sounds heart primarily with a stethoscope during inspiration that resemble the sound of the rustling of cellophane; heard in heart failure, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis
mucopurulent containing both mucus and pus
nebulizer device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
nosocomial infection an infection acquired during hospitalization
paroxysm periodic, sudden attack
patent open, thus allowing the passage of air (or other substance)
ronchi low-pitched, with a snoring quality, breath sounds heard with a stethoscope suggesting secretions in the large airways
sputum mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth
stridor harsh, high-pitched breath sound heard on inspiration; indicates acute laryngeal obstruction
CAP (abbr.) community-acquired pneumonia
CPAP (abbr.) continuous positive airway pressure
HAP (abbr.) hospital-acquired pneumonia
LLL (abbr.) left lower lobe
LUL (abbr.) left upper lobe
RLL (abbr.) right lower lobe
RML (abbr.) right middle lobe
RUL (abbr.) right upper lobe
SOB (abbr.) shortness of breath
BiPAP (abbr.) bilevel positive airway pressure
CPT (abbr.) chest physiotherapy
DPI (abbr.) dry powder inhaler
HME (abbr.) heat/moisture exchanger
IPPB (abbr.) intermittent positive-pressure breathing
MDI (abbr.) metered-dose inhaler
NIPPV (abbr.) noninvasive positive-pressure ventilator
PEP (abbr.) positive expiratory pressure
SVN (abbr.) small-volume nebulizer
VAP (abbr.) ventilator-associated pneumonia