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Chapter 13 vocab

QuestionAnswer
Magma Liquid rock that forms under the Earth's surface.
Volcanism MOVEMENT of magma onto Earth's surface
Lava Magma that ERUPTS onto the Earth's surface
Hot Spot Areas of volcanism within the interiors of lithosphereic plates
Ring of Fire A major zone of active volcanoes encircling the Pacific Ocean
Subduction zone Where one tectonic plate moves under the other
Island Arc A string of volcanic islands
Fissure CRACKS through which lava flows to Earth's surface
Mantle Plume Columns of solid, hot material from the deep mantle, rise and reach the lithosphere.
Pluton Large formations of igneous rocks
Batholith Large plutons
Dike Small plutons
Mafic describes magma or rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and is commonly dark in color.
Felsic describes magma or rock that is rich in light-colored silicate materials.
Viscosity resistance to flow
Quiet Eruption Oceanic volcanoes formed from mafic magma that releases gases slowly
Pahoehoe lava Lava that continues to flow after the crust forms, the crust wrinkles to form the volcanic rock pahoehoe
Aa lava jagged chunks of crusted over lava
Blocky lava has a higher silica content which makes it more viscous
Explosive Eruption Intense explosions from trapped gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, which send molten lava shooting everywhere.
Pyroclastic material fragments of rock that form during a volcanic eruption
Volcanic Ash Pyroclastic particles that are less than 2mm in diameter
Volcanic Dust Volcanic ash that is less than .25mm in diameter
Lapilli Large Pyroclastic particles that are less than 64mm in diameter
Volcanic Bomb Large clots of lava thrown out of an erupting volcano while red hot
Volcanic Block Largest Pyroclastic particle, formed from solid rock that is blasted from the vent
Shield Volcano Volcanic cones that are broad at the base and have gently sloping sides.
Cinder Cone Volcano that has very steep slopes.
Composite Volcano Volcanoes made of alternating layers of hardened lava flows and pyroclastic material.
Caldera A large basin-shaped depression formed when the magma chamber below a volcano empties, and the volcanic cone collapses.
Created by: 2022605ME