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Bio final exam part2

What type of reproduction produces genetic variation? Sexual
How many chromosomes are found in an individual with Down Syndrome? 47
What is a mutation? a change in a gene
What is a point mutation? mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides
What is crossing over? homologous chromosome exchange corresponding segments of DNA
What affects can a mutation have? harmful, beneficial, neutral
What causes a frameshift mutation? insertion or deletion
When does crossing over occur? prophase I
What is independent assortment? Random distribution of maternal and paternal chromosomes during Metaphase I
How many chromosomes are found in human sperm? 23
How are homologous chromosomes similar? size, shape, and genetic content
How does the formation of sperm differ from ova? 4 haploid sperm vs 1 haploid ovum
Using independent assortment, how many combinations of sperm or ova are possible in a horse (2n = 62)? n=31, 2n = 2^31 = 2.1 x 10^9
What type of mutation affects every amino acid in the sequence? frameshift
What are identical strands of DNA joined at the centromere? sister chromatids
What does a square represent in a pedigree? male
What is the genotype of a woman that is a carrier for a sex-linked trait? XCXc
What is the blood type of a person that is IBi? Type B
What is the blood type of a person that is IAIB? Type AB
What about the ABO blood groups doesn’t fit into classic Mendelian Genetics Multiple alleles IA, IB, i and codominance ( IA, IB)
What gender shows the sex-linked recessive traits most often? Males
If a person inherits an autosomal recessive disorder, like Tay-Sachs or Cystic Fibrosis, from whom did they inherit the trait? Both parents contributed a recessive allele
On what chromosome are most sex-linked genes found? X
If a man who has the genotype IAIB and a woman who has the genotype of ii have a child, what possible genotypes could their children have? IAi, IBi
What does “grading on a curve” have to do with genetics? It is assuming that intelligence is based on polygenic inheritance
Based on the Law of Superposition, what rock layer found in a cliff are the oldest? he lowest
Fossil remains of some organisms can be found in different habitats on different continents, what Earth Science concept accounts for this? plate tectonics
What did Darwin think caused the different types of beaks in Galápagos finches? different diets
What are three evidences of evolution? Fossil record, homologous structures, similarities and differences in DNA sequences
What causes competition in populations of organisms? limited natural resources
Organisms well suited to their environment reproduce more successfully
What was the main idea of The Origin of Species? species change over time by natural selection
If two organisms share homologous structures it suggests that they share a common ancestor.
What happens to organisms of the same species living in different habitats or environments? become increasingly different, divergent evolution
Two forces drive natural selection: competition for limited resources and genetic variation.
If two organisms have a similar amino acid sequence for a protein, what does that suggest to scientists? they evolved from a common ancestor
If scientists compared the amino acid sequence of a protein in several organisms, how would they organize them in terms of ‘relatedness’? those with sequences that were more similar are more closely related
Name a human vestigial organ appendix
If a structure (like wings or fins) on two different organisms serves the same purpose, but evolved independently, what is that called? convergent evolution
The lynx and bobcat have accumulated differences because of changes in their habitats, what is this called? divergent evolution
What is it called when plants and their pollinators change in response to each other? coevolution
What does a peacock use to attract potential mates? brightly colored feathers
Created by: Odgersale